Access Keys:

Discover more of Cumbria's history at your local library or archive centre
Stories from around the county about local people
June 1918
  • 9th: New German offensive on Western Front
  • 15th: Austrian massive offensive on Italian front
  • 18th: UK Government asks for a further £500 million war loan
  • 20th: Austrian offensive on Italian front fails
  • 26th: Paris under fire from German howitzer, Big Bertha
  • 27th: Hospital ship Llandovery Castle torpedoed. 234 missing
The First World War in Cumbria day by day
TODAY

01 December 1917

GREAT CENTRAL HOSTEL, Viaduct, Carlisle. A sale of work and entertainment by Munition Girls and Staff will be given at the above Hostel  on Saturday, December 1st, at 6pm. proceeds to be devoted to the Fund for Disabled Soldiers and Sailors. To be opened by Lady Gillford. Admission sixpence.

02 December 1917

Grand Bazaar and Fancy Fair. In view of the approaching Gift Season we have gathered together a wonderful variety of novelties and useful fancy goods, including strong British made Toys and Games for the Children. All at very low prices. The majority of the Toys have been made in Lord Roberts' Workshops for Disabled Soldiers. Kendal Co-operative Society, 5a Highgate, Kendal.

03 December 1917

At a recent sitting of the North Lonsdale Appeals, Ulverston, Mr PJ Hibbert Chairman; Mr WC Kendall was granted a re-hearing in respect of George A Lindow (26 married), working at Vickers, and formerly of Lowick, who appealed on the grounds of the illness of his wife. It was stated that Lindow had six brothers and half-brothers in the Army, two of whom had been killed, and another was missing. Adjourned to next sitting for the production of a medical certificate.

04 December 1917

The Carlisle City Chief Constable. Today's London Gazette contains an official notice that the Chief Constable of Carlisle has formally assumed by deed poll the name of Eric Herbert Spencer, in place of Eric Herbert de Schmid. Spence was the name of his grandmother on the paternal side.

05 December 1917

The Munitions Tribunal for Carlisle and District was held at the Town Hall this week. James Lennox, a moulder, pleaded guilty to a charge of having lost 49 hours between August 31st and October 18th, and said it was due to bad health, and the death of his wife, which left him with four delicate children to look after. The defendant was fined £ 1.

06 December 1917

Twenty-three casualties from the hospital ship Pieger de Corinck which had docked at Dover arrived in Kendal aboard a hospital train today. The casualties were forwarded to the Stramongate Hospital, Kendal.

07 December 1917

OLDER CARLISLE AND AROUND ABOUT. Under this title, Miss Mary Slee, the well-known local artist, has published a second volume of sketches. The little booklet, the inscription states, is gratefully dedicated to 'our suffering comrades', and the profits of the sale will be presented to the Local Auxiliary Hospitals. Not only the patriotic and generous object, to which Miss Slee has devoted her art, but the intrinsic merit and interest of her work will make, we are confident, an irresistible appeal to all lovers of Carlisle and its historic associations. It is priced 2/6.

08 December 1917

WOUNDED SOLDIERS' WORK GUILD, CARLISLE. The third sale of needlework and handicrafts will be opened by Lady Mabel Howard at the King's Hall, Globe Lane, Carlisle, on Saturday, December 8th at 2pm and will remain open until 4:45 pm. The Chair will be taken by Dr Barnes. Admission 6d.

09 December 1917

A GRAND CONCERT in aid of the Prisoners of War Fund, under the auspices of the CARLISLE CITIZENS' LEAGUE will be held on Sunday, December 9th at 8pm in Her Majesty's Theatre, Carlisle. Mr Ernest Stevens has kindly lent the Theatre.

10 December 1917

It was reported in the local newspapers this week that AB George Barnes RND, whose parents live at Belle Isle Place, Workington, was wounded on October 26th, and lay undiscovered for three days. Both his legs have been amputated.

11 December 1917

It was reported in the local press today that Private Foster Crickett, whose mother lives in Lonsdale Street, Workington, has been wounded for the fifth time. He has also the experience of being buried by a shell.

12 December 1917

News has been received in Barrow of the death of Walter Poole (22), son of Mr and Mrs Poole, Lord Street, who was killed in a naval action in the North Sea on December 12th. The deceased was home on leave about a month before his last engagement. He was as able seaman attached to one of HMS destroyers, which was sunk while escorting a convoy. Deceased was a fine type of the sturdy British sailor. He joined the Navy about twelve months prior to the war, before which he had worked Barrow Shipyard. He was in every respect a fine promising lad, and the news of his death must be a heavy blow to his parents and friends [Barrow News 02.02.1918]

13 December 1917

At Kendal today, James Park, farmer, Skelsmergh, was summoned by Mrs Briggs, wife of John James Briggs, Wattsfield, with assaulting her in Kendal market Saturday. Harry Hayton, farmer, Lambrigg, said he and his wife were carrying a butter box, and complainant came up and wanted butter. He said 'It's for my customers'. Mrs Briggs thereupon called out. 'Come along, let's have the butter,' and a crowd of women pressing forward caused his wife to fall on her knees, and a number of eggs she was carrying were smashed. Defendant, in trying to keep the crowd off, unintentionally hit Mrs Briggs. An umbrella, which was broken in the fracas, was afterwards claimed by Mrs Briggs. The Bench dismissed the case.

14 December 1917

Archdeacon Lafone, writing in Barrow St George's Parish Magazine to thank those who had sent resolutions of sympathy to him on the loss of his only brother, who was killed in Palestine on October 27th says: 'From news just received it appears he died a glorious death, and one such as he would have chosen, fighting against heavy odds. One of his regiment writes that my brother and forty men held a position in front of Beersheba and kept at bay 600 Turks until the infantry could come up; that the last message they had from him was 'I intend to hold out till the last.' When the relief arrived all the survivors were wounded, but they picked up the bodies of 208 Turks, so that the stand made by this small band of yeomanry was not in vain.'

15 December 1917

A meeting of the Council of the Cumberland Football Association was held this afternoon at the Commercial Hotel, Workington to consider the question as to having a Cup Competition as sanctioned by the Football Association. Mr WJ Dodgson presided. The Chairman said they all knew operations  has been suspended for a considerable time now owing to the War. He thought probably that had they not suspended they could not have carried on, as footballers were engaged in a game more strenuous than that played on a football pitch. The Secretary and him had computed that something like 2,000 footballers had left the county for the War. Unfortunately many of them had been killed. It was unanimously agreed that no competition be run.

16 December 1917

This afternoon a memorial service was held at Great Strickland Church, the sad occasion being the recent death of Lance-Corporal Shaw, of the Post Office, Great Strickland. In spite of stormy weather there was a good attendance of sympathising friends, in addition to the relatives, at the service; and very touching reference was made by the Rev G Jones, Vicar, in his sermon, to the brave young soldier who had passed away.

17 December 1917

CITY OF CARLISLE. Potatoes in Bread. At the request of the Food Controller the Carlisle Local Food Committee direct attention to the necessity of extending the practice of using POTATOES in BREAD, and all Bakers in the City are urged to apply to the Food Office for the necessary forms without delay. As some prejudice seems to exist amongst householders who bake their own Bread, the Food Controller publishes the following instructions which make good, lighter, and more palatable Bread than that made with War Flour. 1lb of Unpeeled potatoes, 7lb of Flour. Peel the potatoes thinly, boil them, and pass through a sieve or mash very finely. Mix gradually with the Flour, and then proceed as with 8lb of Flour.

18 December 1917

CANADIAN ELECTION AT PENRITH. The 200 men of the Canadian Overseas Forces engaged in cutting down the timber on the Penrith Beacon  have just exercised the franchise in connection with the Canadian election. The polling booth was a large tent on Penrith golf course, the outside of which bore the usual election posters. One of these read 'Every vote against the Government is a vote given to the Hun'.

19 December 1917

A concert was given by Lady Rochdale and wounded officers at the Lingholm Military Hospital in the Queen of the Lakes Pavilion this evening. There was a full house, and an excellent programme was rendered. One item was a quartet, which, to the tune of 'John Peel', had been arranged by the officers, and contained all kinds of amusing localisms, causing much laughter. The amount realised, which was for the benefit of the county hospital and two war working parties, was £ 38.

20 December 1917

SAINTS The place for choice and Value, Stramongate, Kendal. The presents that are practical and useful all the year round. We cordially invite you to visit our showrooms. Soldiers' Bullet Proof Mirror. Nickel-plated in case, 1s 3d. Tommy's Cooker, the Soldiers' Pocket Stove, 1s each.

21 December 1917

At the annual gathering of the Bolton Flower Show the committee passed a vote of condolence with the president, The Rev J Ewbank, on the loss of his son in France.

22 December 1917

Married today at Saint Cuthbert's Church, Carlisle; Dan Haverlock, aged 22, Batchelor, soldier, to Elizabeth Hannah Harland, aged 21, Spinster, munition worker.

23 December 1917

This winter the Hethersgill Ladies' Committee for providing soldiers' comforts have been able to send a large quantity of woollen garments to 26 local men serving in France, Egypt and India. Each parcel contained shirts, socks, mufflers, or mittens. In addition, they have sent a large consignment of similar garments to Lady Lonsdale's Central Committee, per Lady Allison.

24 December 1917

West Ward Board of Guardians. Mr J C Dent presided at a meeting of this board at Penrith today. The Clerk read a letter from the Local Government Board stating the conditions under which men who had become mentally deranged through military service would be accepted as service patients in the asylums. Mr Noble said it was a great disgrace in the country that men who had become mentally deranged in the service of their country should be sent to asylums at all. From what he had seen of the asylums as a visitor he thought it would be more likely to make them worse rather than better. Mr Cleasby said it was a great shame that men suffering from shell-shock etc should be put amongst practical idiots.

25 December 1917

A very happy Christmas has been spent by all at the Englethwaite Auxiliary Hospital. Christmas day was brilliantly fine and sunny. Many of the patients attended the Parish Church at Cotehill in the morning. Through the kindness of friends turkeys and apple puddings were the Christmas fare, with a desert of apples, grapes, nuts, and dates. After tea an entertainment by Mrs Murray and Miss Murray was given, commencing with carols and recitations, and songs accompanied with the violin, and later came games. The large company of patients and staff greatly appreciated the different items, Nurse Smith and Privates Faulkener and Smith also taking part.

26 December 1917

BRINDLE UNITED, WIGTON V DISCHARGED WIGTON SOLDIERS. This match which took place in the Brindle Field, Wigton, today, aroused much interest. A well contested game was won by Brindle United by three goals to one.

27 December 1917

HUDSON SCOTT AND SONS LTD, Carlisle, are engaged on work of NATIONAL IMPORTANCE. Will you help? Good wages guaranteed to Girls.

28 December 1917

AIR RAID WARNINGS. Whitehaven Fire Brigade, Stables, and Streets Committee resolved that the Surveyor have printed and distributed from house to house a leaflet describing the alterations in the warning to be given on the Fire Syren.

29 December 1917

HAIRDRESSING. Wanted Male or Female to manage business; owner called up. Address, Box 52, 'News' Office, Barrow.

30 December 1917

Wanted for the Military Hospital at Roose Institution  an experienced nurse to take charge of  military wards, day and night duty alternatively, under direction of the Superintendent Nurse of the Infirmary. Knowledge of  massage required. Salary at the rate of £ 40 per year, with such allowances as are sanctioned by the War Office. Applications, stating age and with copies of recent testimonials to be forwarded to reach the undersigned no later than 15th January 1918. FW Taylor, Clerk to the Guardians, Barrow in Furness.

31 December 1917

BARROW COMFORTS ASSOCIATION - There has been forwarded during the month of December for the use of the troops to the Lancashire County War Comforts Association, the following articles: - 61 shirts, 120 pairs of socks, 54 mufflers, 21 handkerchiefs, 6 helmets, 1 vest, 47 pairs of mittens, 6 pairs  of gloves, 1 pair of cuffs, 1 chest  protector. The total number of items now forwarded amounts to 11,844. There has also been received towards the provision of comforts the sum of £ 2 from the Holker-street Infants School.

01 January 1918

BURTON IN LONSDALE. The usual watch night service was held at All Saints Church on New Year's Eve, conducted by the Vicar. Owing to war regulations the ringing in of the New Year on the church bells was dispensed with.  Holy Communion followed the service. A parochial gathering  took place in the church Sunday school on New Year's Eve, and to meet the difficulty of obtaining food for a tea, a potato-pie supper was held, to which 140 sat down.  After supper the Vicar gave a lantern lecture. He mentioned a special cause for thankfulness that not a single Burton soldier or sailor had been killed during the war.

02 January 1918

Carlisle. The Palace Theatre presents THE DAY: Germany's Boast and John Bull's Reply, by Harold Feber. Twice nightly 7pm and 9pm. Monday December 31st and during the week. 

03 January 1918

The inauguration of Alston Soldiers' and Sailors' Welcome Home Association took place in the Masonic Hall. Mr JR Walton, the Chairman, said the object was to provide entertainment and presents for the sailors and soldiers when on leave, and to raise a fund for the final welcome home of the brave men of their parish. The Rev SHW Lovett (Vicar), Mr Lee, and others addressed the gathering. Sergeant J Hetherington, who had been awarded a Military Medal, was present and received a hearty welcome. The Chairman, on behalf of the committee, made him a monetary present, and stated they hoped to have the medal sent on for presentation at Alston.

04 January 1918

NATIONAL WAR BONDS AND 'DURAFIT' OVERCOATS. The Best Investments for a Rainy Day. S Redmayne and Sons, 44 English Street, 93 Botchergate, Carlisle.

05 January 1918

An authentic document addressed from a remote village about a dozen miles from Kendal as the crow flies, to the executive officer of the Food Control Committee for the district, has come into my hands as an epistolary curiosity. The writer had been asked to explain some irregularities in his application for a sugar card. His reply, dated last Friday, is so full of indecorous epithets that only in the columns of a profane print not intended for family reading could they be given in full. Here they are indicated by blanks:- 'If I am not registered what the ___ was I put in class 18 for and called up not less than 14 times to be a _____soldier? To____with the___Registration! If you cannot issue a sugar ticket, issue a___substitute; we get little else under the present Government. You can do what the ___you like. I shall get sugar even if I go to jail for it".

06 January 1918

At Kirkby Stephen Church today, Sunday, people were praying continuously from 8am to 8pm. The building was well filled morning and evening, and the collections, which were for the Red Cross fund, amounted  for £ 13, or £ 5 more than last year. The united morning service was attended by the Volunteers. The vicar preached a special war sermon on each occasion, and he called attention to the fact that the first British relief in the South African War, namely the relief of Kimberley, came after a great day of intercession. A special service was held in the Wesleyan Chapel on Sunday evening. The Rev E Ogden occupied the pulpit. The church roll of honour, containing between 70 and 80 names, was read.

07 January 1918

GAIETY and PICTUREDROME, Abbey Road, Barrow. Week commencing  Monday, January 7th. THE CRISIS. By Winston Churchill, the American Author. This is a marvellous production, considered one of the greatest ever filmed. The battle scenes are simply marvellous.

08 January 1918

PENRITH RACECOURSE TO BE PLOUGHED. A conference between members of the Penrith Urban Council and a deputation from the Golf Club was held  this week. The Cumberland War Agricultural Committee have ordered the Council to plough 35 acres of the Racecourse - roughly one-half of the enclosure which forms the larger part of the Golf Club's course, the other portion, on the Beacon Hill, having already been taken by the military. The ploughing is proposed to be done on the north side, between the Grand Stand and Greengill, and the two parties are endeavouring to come to terms as to the loss, the Golf Club holding a lease from the Council, who in turn are lessees under the company which formed the Racecourse over a century ago.

Tuesday Private WJ Crone has visited his relatives in Wigton on recovering from trench fever and gas. At the time of being gassed he was buried for eight hours, and was unconscious when dug out. He is well known in Allonby, his mother at one time being tenant of the Grapes Hotel. He was engineer at Carrs Flour Mills, Silloth, for some years before emigrating to Canada.

09 January 1918

Private JM Johnston, a former Workington Marsh Mission footballer, who returned from Argentina (whither he emigrated nine years ago) to enlist in the Border Regiment, is reported to have been killed on November 2nd. His parents who formerly lived in Hartington Street, Workington, went to Vancouver few years ago.

10 January 1918

Victoria Palace, Ulverston. This evening - one of the Finest and Most Thrilling Dramas of the Season. A MUNITION GIRL'S ROMANCE. Broadwest Production, featuring VIOLET HOPSON. Prices (including Tax) 1/3, 1/-, 8d, 5d, 2d.

11 January 1918

From today's Carlisle Journal: The January sales are in full swing, the excuse for this untimely display of fashions being that it represents the keeping up of a custom rather than the half-yearly clearance of surplus stock. Be that as it may be, the shops are crowded with eager bargain hunters, and the columns of many of the dailies  are filled with illustrations and elaborate descriptions of costly apparel. In some of the more exclusive establishments in the West End, there are evening frocks, gorgeous wraps, and coats, the original cost of which, as stated, was over forty guineas, and the reduced price is thirteen and a half guineas. The exorbitant price originally asked reveals a system of profiteering of an unscrupulous kind, but the buyers are voluntary victims of such extortion. No wonder it is suggested that a tax should be levied on such lavish and unnecessary expenditure on fine clothes.

12 January 1918

This evening a presentation was made to Private Joshua Davidson, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, who had won the Military Medal in October, took place in the Market Hall at Aspatria, Mr ME Sanderson presiding. The Colliery Band was in attendance and played selections. The presentation consisted of £ 50 as follows:- A gold watch and guard suitably inscribed and the balance in Treasury notes, from the Cumberland Conciliation Board. Lieut GH Askew, 2/1st Aspatria Company CVR, made the presentation. Private Davidson making a suitable reply. He was awarded the Medal for carrying despatches under heavy barrage fire.

13 January 1918

From this week's Westmorland Gazette. it was stated in a London paper: the crusade against food-hoarding has led to a new pastime amongst the inquisitive. They watch the arrival of food parcels at local railway stations and note their destinations. Deliveries to large houses in particular are watched. This is not vain fancy. Even in Kendal one hears of inquisitors of this kind. One hears also the name of persons or houses upon which a more or less envious watch is directed. Sometimes the informant goes so far as to reveal the number and quantity of courses comprised in the menu at a family dinner party. The vigilant suspicion indicated by these examples is no doubt limited; but it exists and ought to be added to the considerations which tend to discourage food hoarding.

14 January 1918

Crossland, Pte Richard, King's Own Royal Lancaster Regt., son of Corp H.Crossland, who was reported missing after the Cambria operations, is a prisoner of war in Germany, his wife receiving a communication from him to that effect today. He had been 12 months in France, where four other brothers are serving, and one in India. The father was released and came home on reserve when the youngest son, Ernest, had to go. Pte E Crossland was gymnasium instructor at the YMCA. He has two children.

15 January 1918

Today the Chancellor of the Diocese of Carlisle granted a faculty to Windermere St Mary's for a War Memorial Chapel.

16 January 1918

Private G Harrison, Cockermouth, King's Own Royal Lancaster, is reported missing. His brother has also been missing for five months.

17 January 1918

By the Wounded  - For the Wounded. Town Hall, Barrow. Tuesday, January 17th, 1918, at 2:30 and &:50 pm Special Return Visit. Two Unique Variety Concerts by the wounded soldiers from Blackpool. Entirely new programme. Prices of admission; - Stalls, 3s, Second seats and balcony 2s; Body of hall, 1s. Tickets can be obtained and seats booked at Messrs Walch and Pohl's, Duke Street. Proceeds in aid of the King's Lancashire Military Convalescent Hospital, Lancashire.

18 January 1918

Mr and Mrs Dodd, Union Street, Wigton, who have lost three sons at the War, have received this letter from Captain S. Rigg. 'I am writing to ask you to accept my very sincere sympathy in the death of your son Albert. I have told you before what a very high opinion I had of Albert; he and 'Wally' were two of the bravest lads I have met out here. Whether on patrol or doing ordinary trench duty he had only one thought, and that was his duty. His first thought of being wounded was of his comrades who were wounded alongside him. and as to whether the relief which was in progress at the time had been successfully accomplished. The news of his death came as a blow to us all, especially his Wigton comrades and I can assure you that you have the sympathy of all of us. You, Mr Dodd, have made an enormous sacrifice for your country in this War, and I can only pray that God will help you to bear this fresh load of sorrow which has been thrust upon your wife and yourself'.

19 January 1918

This week's Economical Wartime Recipe in the Barrow News was for Potato Gingerbread Pudding.

20 January 1918

BARROW PUBLIC LIBRARY. Applications are invited for the post of TEMPORARY LIBRARIAN to fill the vacancy caused by the LIBRARIAN'S absence on Military Service. Male candidates must be ineligible for or discharged from the Army. A thorough knowledge of classification and cataloguing is essential. Salary at the rate of £ 130 per annum. L Hewlett, Town Clerk, Town Hall, Barrow in Furness.

21 January 1918

Only the best overalls are good enough for the men who build the guns. The best overalls are sold only by MCDOWELLS', Cavendish Street, Barrow.

22 January 1918

Baptised this month at the Parish Church, Maryport, Douglas Haig son of Francis and Mary Harden, Brow Street, Maryport.

23 January 1918

ULVERSTON BRANCH of the Women's Unionist Association. Non-stop whist drive, Conservative Club, Wednesday, January 23rd., at 7:45 pm, for Prisoners of War Fund.

24 January 1918

Carlisle Rural Tribunal met his week. In the National Service appeal against the exemption of William Murray, 31, married, a gardener and farm hand at Dalston Hall.  Mr Stead said he hoped the Tribunal  would not think that the man was employed watering geraniums. He was absolutely employed on food production. He had a garden of one and a half acres and a farm of 38 acres at which there was one hand. Two gardeners had joined the Army, the chauffeur was with the ambulance at the front and another had gone on the railway. This man certainly produced a great deal of food and when nobody else had a potato last year, after they had sold a great many potatoes, they distributed 200 stones among the Dalston people. Although he was passed Grade 1 he was very delicate. The appeal was disallowed.

25 January 1918

CARLISLE RURAL DISTRICT COUNCIL. Take Notice. Owing to the haulage of Timber by Motor Transport Waggons from the Canadians Camp at Thurstonfield to Dalston Station, the following Roads have been broken up to a very serious extent so as to constitute a great danger to the General Public using the Roads especially as to users of these roads at Night Time, who may be driving or travelling by Motor Car or Cycle. As these extraordinary conditions are caused in carrying out Government work, under present weather conditions cannot be substantially repaired. The Public are therefore warned, when using the undermentioned sections of road, to exercise every care and avoid travelling by night time as much as possible. Road from Thurstonfield near Aikrigg Cottage through Great Orton village, and thence by Grange Farm and Cardewlees Road to Dalston Station. From Wigton main road at a point turning to Newby West, and then through Little Orton village, via Bow and Moorhouse Road, to Thurstonfield. The Road between Bow Farm and past Stone Rigg Farm, and leading towards Great Orton Road. JW Kirsopp, Highway Surveyor, 7 Victoria Place, Carlisle.

26 January 1918

The following letter appears in today's 'Daily Dispatch'. 'Being an employee at Vickers , Barrow, for some years, I am pleased to see someone has had the courage to speak out.  A visit to these works by the military authorities would clear a few of the shirkers out of it into the army. This particular class of gentry are frank about it, and say they don't intend to join the army. Amongst them are grocers, barbers, tailors, actors, weavers, undertakers, all of military age, and have come here, as they tell you, for the duration of the war. Now is the time to make them aware of their liabilities - Fairplay'.

27 January 1918

PATTERDALE WAR SHRINE. Mrs Marshall, Patterdale Hall, Ullswater, has erected a war shrine under the arch of St Patrick's Well, an ancient enclosed wall by the side of the highway at Patterdale. The shrine is made of teak wood and copper taken from the old cadet training ship Britannia. It was designed by a firm of ecclesiastical architects. It contains the names of 82 'old boys' of Patterdale School, who are serving together with their rank and regiment. The names have been painted on the shrine by Mrs Marshall herself.

28 January 1918

BARROW MUNITIONS LEAGUE RESULTS
Millom 4 Shipbuilders 0
Dalton 4 3rd South Lancashires 2
Royal Naval Air Service 4 Airship Athletic 2
Barrow 2 Swarthmoor 1

29 January 1918

Submarine HMS H23 launched at Barrow. [Scrapped 1934].

30 January 1918

Holmrook Officers Hospital opens.

The war drags on just the same and they again wanting about half a million more men. John Hall, farmer of Rosley notes in his diary this day.

 

31 January 1918

The Bishop of Carlisle has asked the clergy in his diocese to hold themselves in readiness to go out to France and Flanders as chaplains.

01 February 1918

At Crosthwaite [Westmorland] in view of the urgent appeal to plough more land, an unused portion of the burial ground adjoining the Parish Church has been ploughed.

02 February 1918

The Wigton Advertiser reported today: There is yet no word about Private John Fleming Curran Pattinson [Border Regiment] a Wigtonian who has been missing since July 10th last. The youngest son of Mr William Pattinson, South End, Wigton, he has been on active service with the Border Regiment since the outbreak of the war, having been in the Militia, and in the course of hard fighting [including Neuve Chapelle, the Somme, Ypres, and the advance of July 1916], was wounded on four different occasions. Once he had the experience of reading a notice of his own death in a newspaper. Private Pattinson was twenty-four years of age, and was in farm service before the war, being hired with Mr Beeby Williamson at Churchrigg.  'Jack' was a fine lad - steady and quiet in civilian life, but a 'devil to fight' when in combat with the Huns.

03 February 1918

A WHITEHAVEN PROTEST. At a largely attended meeting of the members of Whitehaven Miners Joint Lodges on today, Mr J Hanlon presiding, it was decided to call upon the employers of four Belgians taken into Ladysmith Pit to send them away again. A resolution was also passed demanding that men who had entered the mines and other munition works since the commencement of the war should be cleared out before any of the other workmen were called up and that in the event of a ballot being taken throughout the Miners' Federation Area, it should be only taken amongst the men eligible for the Army.

04 February 1918

Today 255 boys from Bishop Goodwin School, Carlisle, attended the Stanley Hall to see film: 'With the Empire Fighters'.

05 February 1918

KENDAL HORTICULTURAL STORES. High Class Florists, Nurserymen, Seedsmen and Fruiterers, Kent Street, Kendal. ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY PLOT TO GROW ITS UTMOST. By producing vegetables to augment the Nation's Food Supply YOU ARE HELPING TO WIN THE WAR. Put every ounce of energy in your Vegetable Plot this year  and break all previous records for big crops. FERGUS LAMB, Seed Expert, who will esteem your orders.

06 February 1918

The British steamer Westmoreland was torpedoed by UB-57 of the north coast of the Isle of Man before being wrecked off Drigg. She was carrying frozen meat for the troops in France.

07 February 1918

Steamship Limesfield torpedoed and sunk, without loss of life, 23 miles west-north-west of Walney.

The Whitehaven News reported today that a woman had been trampled, and badly hurt, in a butcher's queue in Cleator Moor. [A national meat rationing scheme was introduced on 25th March 1918.]

08 February 1918

FATAL RESULT OF SHIPYARD INJURIES.  An accident occurred at the Vickers yard, Barrow,  today when Mabel Dixon, machinist, aged 23, caught her sleeve in some machinery, and her arm was so badly injured that it had to be subsequently amputated. [Miss Dixon, of St Vincent's Street succumbed to her injuries in the North Lonsdale Hospital on February 15th]

09 February 1918

MUNITION WORKERS and others concerned in the Production and Distribution of MUNITIONS who have been forced to leave, or threatened with removal from houses tenanted by these because of change of owner, or other causes are requested to send details in writing to the undersigned. Information in writing is also desired regarding cases where such workers have been compelled to occupy unsanitary dwellings, such as shops, as a result of the houses shortage in the City. All communications will be treated as strictly confidential. Thos. F Thompson, Hon Sec, Carlisle Trades and Labour Council, 41 Ruthella Street, Carlisle.

10 February 1918

MISSING. 2nd BORDER REGIMENT - Arthur William Johnson, Lance-Corporal. No 33382, C Company, XI Platoon. MISSING since October 26th, 1917. Any information gladly received by Father WM Johnson, Knowsley, Prescot.

11 February 1918

Today the merchant ship on which Second-Officer Clement Taylor served was torpedoed and he drowned. His funeral will take place on Saturday 16th at Arthuret Churchyard. His wife lives with Miss Lowther, West Street, Wigton.  Deceased was the only son of Mr Edgar Taylor, of Longtown. Second-Officer Taylor was serving on a vessel which was torpedoed last July.

12 February 1918

SALE OF GULLS' EGGS. With a view to augmenting the food supplies Sir John Ramadan, owner of the Ravenglass gullery, last year authorised the sale of eggs of the common gulls. The proceeds of the sales, amounting to £ 40 10s, have been paid by Mr Watt, steward of the estate, to the Cumberland Branch of the British Red Cross Society.

13 February 1918

PACIFIST MEETING - Mr George Lansbury addressed a socialist and pacifist meeting, under the auspices of the Independent Labour Party, at the Old Town Hall, Barrow, this evening. Mr T Morton presided, and amongst those on the platform  were Councs.  Ellison, Basterfield, Rev S Liberty, of Walney, and a few shop stewards.

14 February 1918

LOST on Saturday [9th], Lonsdale [Battalion] Badge, property of widow, between Caldewgate and Botchergate, Carlisle. Reward, 'Cumberland News Office.

15 February 1918

'Pow Wow'. Under this pithy title the Rev AJW Crosse, who resigned the living of Saint Cuthbert's, Carlisle, in order to become Chaplain to the Lonsdale Battalion of the Border Regiment, has published a little volume of the addresses he has given to the officers and men of the Division to which he is attached at church parades and voluntary services during the past two years. They have been delivered in all sorts of places and only once in a church. Copies are on sale at Messrs Thurnam's, English Street, at sixpence each and the proceeds will go towards purchasing comforts for the men of the Division.

16 February 1918

How times have changed in the comparatively short time of three and a half years, but oh, what a terrible three and a half years. War ravages change the mode of living - aye, and thinking too - as nothing else can. We find in place of tradesmen touting for custom long lines of queues waiting to be served with the barest necessities to keep life together. Has the sight of a long queue of patient women never struck you to the quick, has it never sent a thrill of pity through your heart-strings? Oh the pathos of it all! Barrow News 16.02.1918 By a special correspondent.

17 February 1918

THE MILLOM SCHOOLS which owing to lighting difficulties had to alter the times of commencing and closing to 8 - 45 and 3 - 15 will revert to the old arrangements next week, viz 9 o'clock for the opening and 4 o'clock for closing. In another month, however, summer time will come into operation when another change will have to be made.

18 February 1918

Carlisle Chamber of Commerce. AFTER-WAR PROBLEMS. Sir Henry  Jones will ADDRESS a PUBLIC MEETING in the COUNTY HALL, Carlisle, on Monday, FEBRUARY 18th at 8pm on THE FORGOTTEN FACTOR IN RECONSTRUCTION. The Bishop of Carlisle will preside. Doors open 7:30. Admission Free. Discussion.

19 February 1918

An entertainment recently given by the scholars of Brathay School, before a crowded audience, which consisted of drill, action songs, Highland dance, recitations, etc., realised over £ 3, which with donations will be used  for wool for children knitting soldiers' comforts.

20 February 1918

By a concert given this evening in the schoolroom at Kendal Inghamite Chapel, to provide comforts for those belonging to the Chapel who are now serving in His Majesty's Forces, the sum of £ 3 was realised.

21 February 1918

WORKERS EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. A public lecture will be given by the DEAN of Carlisle (Dr Rashdall) in the Town Hall, Carlisle, Thursday, February 21st at 8pm. Subject 'HOW GERMANY IS GOVERNED'. Questions and Discussion.

22 February 1918

The County Appeal Tribunal was held in Penrith today, Canon Sutton presiding. KESWICK BOBBINS. Major Brown appealed against ten men engaged in bobbin manufacturer at Keswick. Mr Arnison, for the respondents and their employers, Messrs Coward Philipson and Company, said the firm was engaged entirely on work of national importance and were making bobbins for more than half of the flax mills in Ireland. They also were making special articles for use in the trenches - Major Brown said he was willing to admit that the work was of national importance, but it was not protected. The appeals were dismissed .

23 February 1918

SOUTH WESTMORLAND RURAL TRIBUNAL. A sitting of the Tribunal took place in Kendal Town Hall today. Mr JK Robinson presiding - the exemption of a Barbon farm servant of 18 had been challenged. He had previously been given to 1st May. He began on agricultural work on 2nd June last year, and his conduct in his present place had not been satisfactory. Challenge upheld.

24 February 1918

LANCASHIRE WAR AGRICULTURAL COMMITTEE. ULVERSTON DISTRICT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. DESTRUCTION OF ROOKS.  Attention has been directed to the destructiveness of Rooks, where they exist in large numbers, and the urgent necessity of conserving home-grown supplies of food. Owners of Rookeries are requested to shot their Rooks and reduce their Rookeries to the lowest possible limits.

25 February 1918

From his week's Barrow News:
PEACE WITH HONOUR
Oh, that forbidden talk might be
Of Peace till won by Victory!
The nation's voice some arrogate,
Forgetting as their views they state
Our Promise not to sheathe the sword
Until wronged Belgium be restored;
And help our Ally to regain
From German thieves, Alsace-Lorraine.
E.I.F.H

26 February 1918

Submarine HMS L11 launched at Barrow. [Scrapped 1932].

27 February 1918

Kirkby Lonsdale. This evening a lecture, illustrated by lantern slides, was given by Miss Vera Holme (motor transport driver to the Scottish Women's Hospital) on her experience in Serbia two years ago. The invasion of the country, and the consequent removal of the inmates of the hospital down the country, with the many difficulties which had to be overcome, were detailed. Later, when the enemy still coming on, the hospital staff had to decide what should be done, and Miss Holme was one of the party  of fourteen which decided to stay with the wounded. The hospital party were taken prisoner with the unit, and were in the hands of the Germans for three weeks and afterwards under the Austrians. Miss Holme gave some sidelights on the friction which undoubtedly existed between the German and Austrian officers and men during this time, but the Austrian forces treated their unit with greater courtesy than did their ally. Miss Holme said the party were later ordered home, and came via Vienna, where she said the difficulties of obtaining meat and bread were acute then. The pitiful plight of the Serbian Army in its retreat across the Albanian mountains was described. Miss Holme spoke in a direct manner of her many experiences, and the lecture was supported by a wealth of stories, and slides, which brought the subject directly to the imagination. She was heartily thanked at the close. The whole proceeds of the lecture were for the Scottish Women's Hospital and the Hon E Haverfield's Comforts Fund for Serbian Soldiers.

28 February 1918

Sir JS Ainsworth, MP, and Sir JD Rees, MP, addressed a meeting on War Aims this week in the Dale Street Hall, Workington, under the presidency of Mr RH Hodgson. The Chairman made reference to the effort to be made next week for Workington to raise £ 75,000 in National War Bonds, and said that although the amount seemed enormous in view of what had been done in the past they were confident that the sum aimed at would be raised. Sir JS Ainsworth said that Workington  had already got a great name through what it had already done for war funds. Sir JD Rees said this war was against the Prussians and our war aims were to preserve the British Empire and our own independence, which were threatened as they had never been before.

01 March 1918

Holm Cultram Local Tribunal was held at Abbey Town this week. One case  referred to George Grey, shepherd, Hartlow, employed by Mr Armstrong, a member of the Holm Cultram District Council. Grey had been rejected for the Army, and Mr Armstrong said the man was no use for the Army; he could not see across the table. He did not know his own age - whether he was 36 or 46, and he was not fit to go to the Volunteer drills.

02 March 1918

LADIES FOOTBALL Barrow (Vickers)  v Glasgow (Beardmore's) This match, extensively advertised as an 'International!' England v Scotland throughout Glasgow, was played on Saturday at Parkhead, the home of Glasgow Celtic Club, before 15,000 spectators in fine weather. The turf had been frozen hard in the morning and the coach of the Barrow team did not decide on the eleven until half an hour before kick-off.  The game finished in a brilliant  4 - 0 win to Barrow.

03 March 1918

The Young Men's' Christian Association have just completed at the Rowrah Camp for war prisoners a well-appointed hut for the use of the officers and men, on guard at the camp. The main room is 40 feet by 26 feet in area and is well lighted, electricity having recently been installed in the camp. The room is well heated and equipped for refreshments, writing, reading, recreation and games, including billiards, there being  an excellent library, a refreshment buffet and a platform and piano for concerts.

04 March 1918

CARLISLE'S DESTROYER WEEK. Monday March 4th to Saturday March 9th. Every penny taken at the City Picture House next week will be invested in WAR BONDS. Come and help the 'CITY'  to launch the City's Destroyer.

05 March 1918

WORKINGTON TOWN COUNCIL. At the meeting today it was intimated by the Army authorities that owing to the need for doctors in the Army Medical Service it would not be justifiable to ask for the demobilisation of Dr Thomson, Workington's Medical Officer of Health.

06 March 1918

THE WAR OVER I hope to return to my business in Kendal. In the meantime I wish to thank my numerous customers for the ready support they have given to Mrs Birkett, who is managing the business during my temporary absence. The only address - BIRKETT'S, The London Drapers, Kendal. My temporary Address is still ''Doing-my-bit' IN FRANCE. Another advert from France next week. Advert sent to Blighty by WC Birkett [This week's Westmorland Gazette]

07 March 1918

Thursday 7th March, Friday 8th Saturday 9th ALHAMBRA PALACE, Penrith. Thursday, Friday and Saturday. Enormous and Expensive Super Attraction (7 Reels - 7,500 feet) WOMANHOOD; The Glory of the Nation. (Companion Picture of An American's Home.) Featuring Alice Joyce, Peggy Hyland, Harry Morey and all the Vitagraph Stars. Stupendous! Thrilling! Wonderful!  AERIAL TORPEDOES!  GAS ATTACKS!  SUBMARINES!  ZEPPELINS IN ACTION! A NAVY DESTROYED. (Please come early for Good Seats, as we must start this picture prompt to Time!) Popular prices: Circle 1s 1d; Stalls 8d: Pit 4d. Children: Circle 7d, Stalls 4d, Pit 2d.

08 March 1918

The Chats with Children column in today's Carlisle Journal had the following contribution. "Home at 6:30 today." Oh, what excitement that telegram causes in his dear old home. Father is all joy, mother seems to tread on air, so quickly does she step about the house ,making a true welcome for her dear boy; whilst brothers and sisters all join in, and assist to make the welcome one of joy. Bang goes the gate. He has arrived. And we all rush forward. Mother first, then father, afterwards sisters and brothers. How we welcome him, how we feast him, and at night we sit up late to hear his wonderful stories; very modest, but oh! so glorious. Do not we younger brothers  envy him, for we cannot by reason of our youth be in the fight too. What a giant he has grown, and so different now, not a bit particular, for he had 'roughed' it, and nothing seems to worry him. His short leave slipped away, all too quickly, and the farewell came all too soon.  We all went to see him off, and whilst we were sorry to part with him we felt proud of him; for we all felt that His country needed him. We wished him good-bye, and all hoped that he would return to us with the honours of victory

09 March 1918

THIS WAR MAY BE DECIDED IN THE AIR. Penrith and District are asked to provide £ 50,000  to buy 20 AEROPLANES at £ 2,500 each. BE PATRIOTIC and Buy War Bonds and War Certificates. Note the Date - March 4th to 9th. PENRITHIANS, DO YOUR BIT.

10 March 1918

KIRKOSWALD MINISTER INJURED. Yesterday, Saturday, while the Rev TF Watson, superintendent of Kirkoswald Wesleyan Circuit, was, through labour shortage, helping to lop felled trees on Fog Close Farm, he cut his right leg severely. He was unable to take services  today.

11 March 1918

At Penrith this week, Watson Sykes, manager of the London City and Midland Bank at Penrith was fined £ 2 and costs by the Penrith Bench for having unlawfully obtained half a pound of sugar on the sugar card of his daughter, who was at school; and Miss J Sykes, his sister, was fined a similar sum for having aided in the offence.

Cockermouth Rural District Council. Mr DN Pape moved, and Mr CF Watson seconded, and it was agreed, that the Council subscribe £ 10 towards the fund for the provision of comforts for the men engaged on road construction in France. The Chairman said that the Council had 36 of their workmen, and Mr Gibson, their Surveyor, out in France.

12 March 1918

Submarine HMS H28 launched at Barrow [Scrapped 1944].

13 March 1918

KENDAL POLICE COURT. Thomas Stuart, of Kendal, was brought up in custody charged with being a deserter since November 28th - P.S.O' Connor said on Saturday night, 9th September, he saw the prisoner at the Wheat Sheaf. He said 'You are a deserter", Prisoner said 'I think you are mistaken'. Prisoner was published in the official record as being a deserter from the Royal Flying Corps. Prisoner denied this, and produced a discharge from the Army dated 1915 - Prisoner now said he had been discharged from the Army ten times, twice during the war, as medically unfit. It was not for want of trying. He would let any doctor in the town examine him. Prisoner was remanded for a military escort, and a reward was granted to the sergeant.

14 March 1918

DESERTER CAMPING OUT. At Wigton today - before R Carruthers, Esq - Private Joseph Mason, labour battalion, South Lancs Regiment, was charged with being an absentee from Sheffield since September 15th. When arrested by PC Roddick he was living with his wife and two children in an outhouse in a fields near The Hards, Wigton. The Magistrate remanded the prisoner to await an escort, and awarded the constable 10s.

15 March 1918

Glinger Bank Auxiliary Hospital, Longtown, opens.

16 March 1918

Submarine HMS L12 launched at Barrow.[Scrapped 1932].

17 March 1918

FREESTONE, Pte Jas W.,  Lancashire Fusiliers. Through the agency of the Red Cross Society's inquiry department for wounded and missing, Mrs Freeston of Murray's Yard, Stricklandgate, Kendal, has received tidings of the death of her husband, Pte Jas W. Freeston. A comrade of Freeston who is now in hospital in Liverpool furnished the following statement to the department: 'I knew Freeston. We went over the top in an attack on October 9th 1917. We kept close to each other. After securing our objective we took cover by digging ourselves in, and while waiting a shell burst upon us, wounding several and killing Freeston. I have no doubt about the occurrence. I was not wounded myself'. Pte Freeston joined the Border Regiment in November 1916; he was afterwards transferred to the Lancashire Fusiliers, and in May of last year went out to France. He was 36 years of age, and his wife has two young children. Previous to joining he was a mason with Mr Pennington, builder.

18 March 1918

MARYPORT URBAN DISTRICT COUNCIL. PIG REARING. Messrs J Wharton and Son write asking the Council's permission to allow their employees to keep pigs in their store yard, Irish Street. Mr Hardy said it was very creditable to the proprietors of these works that they were determined to do all they possibly could to increase the supply of food. It was also desirable the Council should take something of this sort - Permission was granted, and a committee appointed to consider the general question.

19 March 1918

DURAFIT'S MODEL TANK COMPETITION FOR BOYS; We will give three prizes, in clothing, value 10s, 5s and 2s6d, and three consolation prizes of 1s each, to the boys under 14 years of age who make the best Model Tanks or Armoured Cars. We will supply at a penny each a full set of parts - printed in Cardboard - these most be cut out and put together. Models must be sent in no later than Tuesday 26th March, and each boy must certify that he has made the model himself. Only one prize to each boy. Apply S Redmayne and Sons Ltd, Carlisle, Workington, Whitehaven, Penrith, Wigton, Maryport etc.

20 March 1918

The large number of appeals at the Wigton Military Tribunal on Monday yielded only one man for the army - and he was a boy as someone remarked. With every sitting the cases grow more difficult to deal with. One thing is certain; the task of the Tribunal is an unenviable one.

21 March 1918

THE MINERS COMB-OUT. Adverse majority in Cumberland. The members of the Cumberland Miners' Association have voted as follows in the ballot on the question of the recruitment of 50,000 men for the Army from the coal mining industry. Shall the Miners' Federation of Great Britain agree to the withdrawal of 50,000 men from the mines for military service? For the proposition 1,857, Against 2,587. Majority 730. Those who did not vote formed a considerable proportion of the total membership of the Cumberland Miners' Association, which is about 7,000.

22 March 1918

WANTED PHOTO AS SOUVENIR. Charlemagne Lescart, a tall Belgian munitions worker, appeared on remand at the Barrow Police Court on this morning on a charge of unlawfully taking photos in the new Shell Shop on Sunday. The defendant said he wanted the photos as a souvenir. His friends called him the 'the big boy' as he was full of fun. He was a Belgian soldier who was at the siege of Antwerp. He was wounded and succeeded in making it to England. He had set to work on munitions and had been at Barrow for three years. He said he knew he could not take photographs without permission, but a group of Belgian and English workmen asked him to take a photo, so that he might take it to Belgium after the war. He was sorry. The accused was fined 10s and costs (15s).

23 March 1918

The owner of a pig wished to kill it and share it with his friends but fearing he might come under the regulations against hoarding , he asked his local Food Committee to advise him on the point. Here is their answer; 'Re killing pig - This is permissible if done in moderation'. This story is told by a correspondent in Saturday's 'Spectator'. He does not give the address but there are those who suggest that it might be Kendal. Truly, one cannot exclude this possibility, nor deny that some things even funnier than this answer may be revealed in Kendal before our food troubles have an end in joy and peace and plenty  [Today's Westmorland Gazette].

24 March 1918

MEETING FOR MEN. Organised by the local branch of the Council for combating Venereal Disease. TIVOLI, FORSHAW STREET, BARROW-IN-FURNESS.  SUNDAY, 24th March, 3pm. Speakers Dr RA Harper and HR Elliott.  Chairman, the MAYOR (Mr Alderman BAROW, OBE.) Selection of music by the Shell Shop Male Voice Choir.

25 March 1918

The Super Cinema, Abbey Road, Barrow-in-Furness.
All the week at the Matinee only, The Life of LORD KITCHENER (Exclusive). Splendid All British Production of the Life-work of the Great British Field Marshall. 'Every man, woman and child in the Kingdom should see this interesting and timely attraction' London Press.

26 March 1918

Mr and Mrs J Holliday, 68 Queen Street, Aspatria, received an official telegram this evening from the Secretary of the War Office informing them that their son, Second Lieutenant J Holliday, R.F.A., was reported missing on March 21st; this does not  (the telegram stated) necessarily mean killed or wounded. His elder brother Second Lieutenant HL Holliday, was killed in December whilst serving with the Salonika forces.

27 March 1918

NON-FERROUS METAL. Messrs F McCumiskey hold the munitions permit to purchase Copper and Aluminium in less than 56 lb consignments and Lead in less than 112 lb consignments. Any quantity (large or small) purchased. THESE METALS ARE URGENTLY REQUIRED FOR WAR PURPOSES. You will be doing a patriotic action by looking up all the Metal you have lying about and communicating with P McCUMISKEY, Crown Works, Crown Street, Carlisle. If metal is sent to the above Address remittance for full value  will be forwarded at once.

28 March 1918

Mr Charles Hornung, Send Manor, Ripley, Surrey, applied for a faculty to place on the south wall of St George's Church, Millom, a white marble tablet in memory of Charles Alfred Peter Horning (grandson of Mr Thomas Barlow-Massicks), C Company 18th (UPS) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers, killed in action in France, 7th February 1916, aged 18 years and 9 months. The Chancellor of the Diocese said in consideration of the request that he questioned whether the Court was justified in granting permission for the putting up memorials to persons who did not belong to the parish. Except under special circumstances the Court would not have granted this faculty.

29 March 1918

The Mayor of Workington received a communication informing him of the death of Second Lieutenant Warwick in action and asking him to break the news to his father, Mr John Warwick, the Town Clerk of Workington. He was serving his articles with Messrs Broatch and Son, Solicitors, Keswick, when he joined the forces. He was Mr Warwick's only son.

30 March 1918

CRISIS OF THE WAR. Today's Barrow News editorial said:  For over a week now the British Army has been fighting the greatest battle in the world's history, and fighting, it need hardly be added, as was only to be expected; every inch of ground contested to the last against the overwhelming forces the enemy  had been able to bring against  it through the defection of Russia…the Russian Iscariots, known as Bolsheviks, who sold their country for German pieces of silver.
[Reference to Operation Michael, the German offensive which began on  March 21st 1918]

31 March 1918

The Chief Constable of Carlisle  reported that during March the convictions in the city for drunkenness numbered seven, against forty-eight last year, for assaults on the police none, against four last year. For the first three months of the year convictions for drunkenness numbered 36 as against 164 in the corresponding quarter last year. This year there was only one conviction for assault against the police, against eight last year.

01 April 1918

The 53rd anniversary of the Carlisle Caldewgate Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School was celebrated yesterday, Easter Sunday, and today, Easter Monday. This afternoon, Monday, a small sale of work was arranged to take the place of the usual public tea, which had  to be abandoned this year owing to the food restrictions.

02 April 1918

YOUNG LADY Wanted immediately, to act as Deputy Collector for a well-known Insurance Society; to work the Agency of a gentleman now on active service in France. A liberal salary and commission to the right person. Address in confidence. 701, Carlisle Journal.

03 April 1918

Wigton; Roslin Castle. At ten pm this evening Police Constable Watson (Mealsgate) visited the home of Driver J Blaylock's, an army deserter from Preston who had been absent without leave since September 23rd. His mother said prisoner was not at home and had not been seen for three months. Later the constable saw prisoner enter the house by a back way, and heard his mother tell him that the police were after him and advising him to get out. Two men then came out, and one went away on a bicycle. Watson followed on his bicycle, and found it was Blaylock, who about midnight near Hall Bank threw his machine on the road and went into a field. Blaylock said it was a bad job, and offered £ 2 to be let off.  Blaylock appeared at Wigton and was remanded for escort.

04 April 1918

Canon Sutton presided  today at a sitting at Carlisle of the County Appeals Tribunal at which there were 26 cases on the list.  Eleven of the cases  were from Carlisle City, six from Wigton Rural, one from Aspatria, two from Holm Cultram, one from Penrith Urban, one from Grasmere, one from South Westmorland and three from East Westmorland. Captain Lambert was the National Service representative. Speaking in opposition to the National Service appeal regarding SP Ashbridge, 28, single, class A, butcher and farmer at Caldbeck, Mr Hetherington said that his client had already 600 meat cards to deal with, and the wide hilly district around could not be supplied with meat if only one butcher was left in Caldbeck. Captain Lambert said he must press for this man who was single and class A. The National Service appeal was allowed.

05 April 1918

I have been having a rough time of it since I went out to France. I was up in the front line during the whole bombardment and I may venture to say it was hell upon earth. I can't describe it in writing; it would take too long. From March 21st until March 24th when I was wounded, I got no sleep. We were fighting day and night, and the only food that I was able to snatch was one slice of bread and half-pint of tea for three days. So you can judge the kind of time we have been enjoying. But I am glad to say Fritz has not had his own way. Our heavies gave him as much as he wanted, and I am afraid it will take him some time to bury his dead. He was glad to dig in again. My God, he has lost some men. We have lost some, but the Germans have had a proper combing out by our guns.
Letter in this week's  Westmorland Gazette.

06 April 1918

WANTED for Broad Leys Officers' Hospital, Windermere, Head Working Gardener and Wife and Daughter,  to live in lodge. Discharged soldier or ineligible Man desired. Wife and Daughter to assist in Hospital. For particulars as to wages etc apply to Mrs Currer Briggs, Broad Leys, Windermere.

07 April 1918

Reference was made by the British Medical Journal in the last issue to the extreme difficulty of collecting and evacuating casualties, which was part of the experience of the British in the hasty retirement upon the Somme a fortnight since. Casualty clearing stations had to be abandoned and many wounded fell into the hands of the enemy and were included in the reports as prisoners. While the battle was still raging an alarming rumour ran through Kendal in regard to a casualty clearing station in which the town is specially interested.  'Wiped out' was the short and sweeping phrase in which the news was put, before it had been in circulation an hour. It was of course wrong. The personnel of the unit retired alright; but stores, equipment and belongings had been left behind. According to the British Medical Journal all accounts agree as to the splendid behaviour of those serving in such units; and there is no reason to doubt that the unit referred to deserved the praise as much as any.
This week's Westmorland Gazette.

08 April 1918

HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE,  King's Bench Division. Barrow in Furness District Registry.  Between SM Kropman, Plaintiff and  Andrew Scott Cowie, Defendant. The above action has been taken against me by Mr Kropman, claiming damages  for slander in respect of statement made by me relating upon his nationality and  business methods. PUBLIC APOLOGY to Mr SM Kropman, 256 Dalton Road, Barrow in Furness. I hereby UNRESERVEDLY withdraw every such statement which I admit were untrue. I deeply regret that I ever made them and tender him my sincere apologies, therefore, I have today paid to his Solicitor all the costs that have been incurred in the above action which he has commenced against me, and also in accordance with Mr Kropman's request  have paid a further sum of £ 5 5s to the Mayor of Barrow's Soldiers' Comforts Fund as an amend for the injury and annoyance I have caused him. Mr Kropman is a British citizen and to the best of my knowledge has always in the past and is now personally conducting his Dental Practice at no 256 Dalton Road, Barrow in Furness. Signed Andrew Scott Cowie, 53  Storey Square, Barrow in Furness.

09 April 1918

THE CHADWICK HOSPITAL, Carlisle. The beds are now full and several convalescents have been sent to Castletown, Rockcliffe. An allotment has been taken for the use of the hospital and is being worked by the patients themselves. Mr John Bracken has undertaken to help the men in the evenings. One evening Mrs Lightfoot arranged a concert in the wards and had the help of Miss Sowter, who was spending a few days in Carlisle. She was accompanied by Mr Marriner, with Miss Lightfoot as pianist. The men were charmed with Miss Sowter's singing and Mr Lightfoot's recitations. Miss May Fryers, one of the staff, has presented an altar cloth and chalice veil to the hospital.

10 April 1918

THANKS FOR SYMPATHY. Mrs. Sam Rigg wishes to express her most grateful thanks to all friends who have so kindly sympathised with her in her terrible anxiety for her husband, and hopes in time to answer all letters. She received, at noon on April 10th, a War Office correction wire saying that Major Rigg, Border Regiment, was now reported 'wounded and missing' instead of 'killed in action' as previously reported.

11 April 1918

People in Kendal and other parts of the north have many proofs that men serving in the R.A.M.C. are not exempt from the extreme hazards of the campaign. Amongst such proofs afforded in the course of the present battle was the death of two brothers belonging to Carlisle serving in the same unit of the R.A.M.C., and killed by the explosion of the same shell at an advanced dressing station, where two medical officers were also among the dead.
This week's Westmorland Gazette

12 April 1918

STRONG LAD or MAN WANTED , ineligible for Army:- Apply, Hudson, Newton-in-Cartmel  [Advert in this week's Barrow News].

13 April 1918

John Hall, farmer of Rosley, notes in his diary today: 'We have bad news of the war, our side are getting driven back in France by the Germans. The military age has been raised to 50 and conscription extended to Ireland'.

14 April 1918

Some fifty or sixty Church Army huts have been lost in the British retirement, but the saddest loss is that of the Hospital of Friendship. It was taken out in January 1915, as a gift of Mrs Frank Stoop to Belgium by Lady Bagot, of Levens, who (with a sound experience of war nursing gained in the Boer War) remained with it, the only woman there for two years. Prebandary Carlisle's son worked for it as a chauffeur. It accommodated 26 wounded, or at a pinch 40, and it had to deal with some of the earliest cases of gassing. Stationed about seven miles behind the Front, it was constantly bombed from the air - one day as many as 23 bombs fell around it. Its story makes a fine chapter in the history of the heroic British hospital missions during the war. [This week's Carlisle Journal].

15 April 1918

 CONISTON PARISH COUNCIL. Meeting was held today. On the motion of the Rev FT Wilcox, seconded by the chairman, it was decided to enter in the parish records the pride, admiration and thankfulness of the Council for the glorious stand of the 55th Division, probably the best known stand in English history, the chairman remarking that undoubtedly the 55th Division had saved the situation.

16 April 1918

CONISTON. BILLETING ACT OF 1917 - Today representatives of the Ministry of Munitions distributed forms in the village with a view to compiling a register of accommodation for billeting persons engaged in work of national importance.

17 April 1918

PARKER, Edward Henry. Mr and Mrs J Parker, Park Road, Milnthorpe, this week, received information that their second son, Edward Henry Parker, Border Regiment, had been killed in action in France. He was 21, and when he enlisted in January 1917, was working for Mr HC Hodgson, High Foulshaw. His brother, Jack Parker, also of the Border Regiment, was reported missing six months ago.

18 April 1918

THE IDEAL PRESENT. A framed enlargement, in black and white, sepia, or water colours, from PARKER'S PARISH CHURCH GATES, Kendal. Soldiers' portraits a speciality. Send the small photo today. Best quality obtainable. [This week's Westmorland Gazette].

19 April 1918

SITUATIONS WANTED.  INVALID OFFICER Seeks Employment. National importance preferred, good education and energetic. Box 727 Carlisle Journal.

20 April 1918

BARROW IN FURNESS FOOD CONTROL COMMITTEE. To Butchers, Grocers, Provision Dealers, Caterers, Confectioners, and Others. NOTICE. Meat of every description, Cooked or Uncooked, must only be sold on surrender of coupons. Vendors of pies may supply two or more pies in exchange for one coupon, provided that they contain not more than 3oz of meat collectively. Bacon must only be sold in exchange for coupons. Jas Johnson, Executive Officer.

21 April 1918

Saturday. NOTICE TO FARMERS. We beg to inform our Customers that the sale of all Fallen, Broken or Gathered Wool is now prohibited. We hold a Government Licence, however, to purchase Daggings. C and M Pickles [Advert in this week's Westmorland Gazette].

22 April 1918

WOMEN'S LAND ARMY. The Government is appealing for 30,000 WOMEN to work on the Land, to take the place of men now joining the Army and to provide additional labour for Food production. Workers are wanted at once for spring work and are assured of regular and congenial occupation throughout the year. Recruits are earnestly called upon to come forward at office and enrol themselves with the Women's Land Army. For the particulars apply to THE EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGE, KENDAL; or  MISS DICKSON, Abbots Reading, Haverthwaite, Ulverston.

23 April 1918

Among the men who took part in the raid on Zeebrugge today were Seamen Joseph Baxter, King Street, Maryport, who was killed leaving a widow and three children, and Stoker John Palmer, Fleming Street, Maryport, wounded in the arm. Stoker Palmer's parents within the past fortnight have thus heard of two sons wounded and one killed. Private B P Thornthwaite, South Street, Cockermouth, came through the raid safely.

24 April 1918

The Rev James W Hall, who is reported missing, was formerly curate of Wigton, and also at Maryport. Last year he was awarded the Military Medal, and he has since received a bar to the medal. He was last seen helping the wounded on March 24th, and has not been heard of since.

25 April 1918

Mr W Laird, Chairman of the Cockermouth Board of Guardians, has had a letter from his son, Gunner F Laird, RFA, who says 'We are now behind the lines waiting to be re-equipped, having lost nearly everything. If you people in England could only see the sights we have seen then you would know what a war was. Fancy farmers in England having to leave their stocks in the fields and flee for their lives. That's what hundreds have had to do here. Last night was the first night I have had my clothes off for 20 days, so I had a grand sleep; we have had hardly any since this affair started. We have had some hard times, and some good ones - I mean as regards grub, which the French people have left in the farms. Some of the villages we have been in the people cleared out, so of course, we could get what we wanted - plenty of fowls, wines etc'.

26 April 1918

CIGARETTE GIFT - By the kindness of Millom residents in India, any Millom soldiers (either serving or in training) in the town can obtain a free packet of cigarettes by applying at Mr Atkinson's shop in the Square. [Barrow Evening News].

27 April 1918

Barrow. Submarine HMS H25 launched. [Scrapped 1929].

28 April 1918

THE BEACON AS A WAR MEMORIAL. At the last meeting of Penrith Urban District Council a letter was read from the Trades and Labour Council asking the Council to take the initiative in approaching the trustees of the Lowther estate with a view to the purchase of the Beacon by the town, by public subscription, as a permanent memorial to the Penrith men who have fallen in the war. Mr Elliott said it was rather a tall order. It would not be wise to consider the question of purchasing the whole, but he suggested  that approaches might be made with a view to ascertaining if there would be any disposition to sell the portion on the town side of the Pike. The matter was referred to the General Purposes Committee.

29 April 1918

The Countess of Lonsdale is one of the latest donors of pearls to the Red Cross Necklace appeal.

30 April 1918

This week's Barrow News reported that a brass tablet had been erected in the Dalton Wesleyan Church in honour of Private Thomas C Varcoe who died in France in September 1916. The plaque, unveiled by his brother John, was placed just above the seat where the deceased soldier sat.

01 May 1918

Workington. William Entwhistle, aged 21, pleaded guilty at Workington this week to being a deserter from the Middlesex Regiment. He told Sergeant Stewart that he had been discharged and produced a discharge paper, which however belonged to a brother discharged from the Royal Naval Division. He was remanded to await an escort.

02 May 1918

MILLOM; Private John Stephens, Kings Own Liverpool Regiment, one of three sons (all serving) of Mrs Stephens, 42 Devonshire Road, Millom, is officially reported missing, the news being received today, 2nd May. He went to France two years ago and had only returned some eight weeks after being invalided out. His age is 32, and he was formerly in the Co-operative Society's employ at Millom and Liverpool. Hopes are entertained that he may  be a prisoner.

03 May 1918

Carlisle. There was today in the Town Hall a presentation of  medals of the Order of the British Empire to Miss Norah Morphet, Mrs Joan Nelson, both of Carlisle and Miss Ada Watt, Port Carlisle,  Lord Lonsdale, representing the King, presented the medals. Miss Watt and Mrs Nelson were awarded the medals for courage in continuing to work in an explosives factory under circumstances of grave danger. Miss Morphet's award was for courage and high example in continuing to work many hours in a poisonous atmosphere which habitually affected her health. Lord Lonsdale personally congratulated each lady amid cheers.

04 May 1918

The Barrow News today reported that the Mayor and Mayoress of Barrow had received a postcard from their son, Captain Barrow, saying that he was in a hospital at Cassell, suffering from a broken left thigh. He added that he is going on favourably and is being treated well.

05 May 1918

The ninth memorial service in connection with the death of parishioners in the war was held at St James Church, Carlisle, this evening, which was the last occasion on which the Vicar, Rev DE Davies, occupied the pulpit prior to his departure for service among the convalescent soldiers at the front. The pulpit and part of the chancel has been draped with the Union Jack and purple and the service, which was of an impressive nature, was attended by one of the largest congregations which the church has contained, a double row of seats having been placed in the aisles. The death roll at present for the parish stands at 138 men.

06 May 1918

BOTCHERGATE PICTURE HOUSE, Carlisle. The Premier Cinema. Visit the Cosy Cafe which now offers a  3-Course Vegetarian Luncheon. 1/2.  (No Meat Coupons Required). Daily from 12-30 till 2pm.

07 May 1918

DALTON MILITARY TRIBUNAL was held  in Dalton Town Hall this week , May 11th, to deal with 22 cases. It was said that Gerald Brocklebank, a cowman of Marton, whose name was on the list, had been in the Army for two years. John Rigg, butcher, Askham, was sent for medical examination, case to come on again at the next sitting. Harry Hancock, Dalton, shell rectifier, had his case adjourned for a fortnight pending a medical examination.

08 May 1918

WAR HOSPITAL SUPPLY. In our list of contributions of this fund last week the amount contributed by St Paul's Church £ 18 5s 5d, and Miss Rutherford should have been Mrs Rutherford.
This week's Barrow News.

09 May 1918

Submarine HMS H30 launched at Barrow [Scrapped 1935].

10 May 1918

This week's West Cumberland Times reported that Private Edward Gilbert Speight aged 19, had been killed in action in France, where he had been drafted only 6 weeks earlier. He had worked at Maryport Co-operative and was brought up by his grandmother, Mrs Watson of the Volunteer Inn, Broughton. Edward entered the Broughton boys school on the 3rd July 1905.

11 May 1918

A sitting of the Wigton Urban Military Tribunal was held this afternoon, Mr R Carruthers presiding. The National Service Representative, Mr Phelps,  applied for the withdrawal of the certificate of William Peacock (35, C1), a presser with Messrs Redmayne and Sons, Wigton. Mr Harrison Dixon, manager, said the work was too heavy for women, as the irons were about 17lbs weight. About 50% of their work was Government work. Mr Phelps asked for the man to be sent for medical examination, in order to be graded, and this course was adopted.

12 May 1918

The Very Latest. RATION CARD PROTECTOR. Neat Case. 3d and 6d each. T McMechan's, Stationer, Wigton.

13 May 1918

Submarine HMS L17 launched at Barrow [Scrapped 1934].

14 May 1918

Submarine HMS R7 launched at Barrow [Scrapped 1923].

15 May 1918

Corporal Tweddle, Black Watch, Kirkcambeck, was killed in action on April 18th. An officer writes 'He was one of the best NCO's in the company, and did his duty on all occasions to the utmost. He fell fighting gallantly with many of his comrades. His death has been bitterly avenged by his comrades, and the Germans paid dearly for their attack. He was dearly loved and esteemed by officers and men alike'.

16 May 1918

The County Appeals Tribunal was held in Carlisle today. 'He is the only son we have left out of three, my two elder sons have both laid down their lives for their King and country", remarked Mr Hunter, farmer, Scalesmoor, Lamplugh in appealing for Jackson Hunter, aged 18, single and grade 1, described as a ploughman and general husbandman. He added that his wife was paralysed and if this lad had to go the consequences would be more serious still. The appeal was allowed and the man remains in his present occupation.

17 May 1918

ROSE CASTLE WORK PARTY. Mrs Diggle [The Bishop of Carlisle's wife] has during the last month sent to Lady Lonsdale's Committee, to Miss Creighton for the Carlisle Women's League and to Lady Valda Machell for the Border Regiment, 60 pairs of socks, 8 shirts, 2 mufflers, 4 pairs of mittens and 75 hospital bags, sent by the household at Rose Castle and friends at  Raughton Head, Gaitsgill, Sebergham, Nether Welton, Stockdalewath, Sowerby Row and the neighbourhood.

18 May 1918

Corporal J W Towers (Border Regiment), eldest son of Mr J Towers, Millbeck, Lorton, who won the Military Medal on March 24th for conspicuous bravery, sent home the following letter: "The Germans were all around, and attacked a post with only eight of us in it. Five were killed, and the other three of us held on until dark, and fought our way out. We ran into three Hun officers and bayoneted them, and had to run through a trail of machine gun bullets. I was the only one who got out alright, although I got a hole through my pants and one through my hat. Another of the remaining two  got wounded in the left arm, and one was killed. The next night was much the same. I held on to my post as long as possible, and was the only one left when I retired.  I did not go far until I found Major Rigg wounded in a shell hole. I stayed and dressed him, and waited until dark again. I took him to an R.A.P., but had to leave him there and bolt, for once more I was surrounded. I came across two Lancashire lads with a Lewis gun, and told them they were surrounded, and to keep still. After about half an hour we heard the Germans talking in front of us, and could see them walking about amongst the debris, silhouetted against the sky. We put a pan onto the gun, and rattled it to one side, from the centre, and then another pan to the other side. How we got through, God knows, but the Huns were surprised when we fired into their rear, and ran like mad…I shook hands with myself when I got relieved."

19 May 1918

At Keswick today, John Fleming Brownrigg, farmer's son, Millbeck Hall, was charged under the Defence of the Realm Act with making a fire and keeping it burning in such a manner as to serve as a signal, guide or landmark. Police-constable Martin stated that on 25th April he saw a fire burning on Dalts fell about three miles from Keswick. He charged defendant who said he set the ling on fire to get grass for the sheep. He looked after dark, and seeing no fire thought it was out. Witness cautioned defendant's father last year about a similar thing, and defendant was present at the time. The Chairman said the magistrates considered this a very serious offence, but as it was the first of the kind that had come before them they would let defendant off with a fine of £ 3.00.

20 May 1918

Appleby hiring was held today, but it existed in name rather than fact, for there were few men out of employment. Where farm servants were free to negotiate they almost invariably asked for more than the high wages at last hiring. Female labour can scarcely be said to have come into the open market.

21 May 1918

PENRITH. Not in living memory has there been such small attendance at a Penrith Whitsuntide hiring as was the case this morning. There was good demand for strong lads below military age, which the supply did not meet. The circumstances are such that it is practically impossible to quote trustworthy figures, but generally wages were from £ 1 to £ 2 higher than at last Whitsuntide hiring. Female labour for domestic service was very scarce, doubtless on account of their being more attractive openings for girls.

22 May 1918

Vagrancy in Barrow is at a very low ebb just now, and well it ought to be considering that men who are able for any class of work are in such demand, Of course, there are still men who although able, are not very keen to work. They don't know the meaning of the word, It is not likely, however, that able-bodied men will be given a night's 'doss' at the casual ward down at Roose. The tramp has largely disappeared. The war has effected this desirable change and measures ought to be adopted to avoid a recurrence of the vagrancy evil after the fighting is over. Work must be found for all who are fit, and those who are disabled, physically unfit or mentally deranged must be cared for by the state.
Comment in this week's Barrow News

23 May 1918

Taking advantage of the Whitsuntide hirings a recruiting campaign in connection with the 'Women's Land Army'  was started at Ulverston this afternoon. About forty buxom lasses from the training centre at Broughton near Preston, looking very smart in their new uniforms, arrived on the scene of action early in the forenoon in charge of Mr and Mrs Richings and forming in procession, headed by the wounded soldiers and nurses from Fair View Military Hospital, marched around the town, carrying banners on which were inscribed the sentiments 'The lasses are massing for the spring offensive' 'Join the Land Army and hold the home front', 'We want the men in the field and the women in the fields' and 'We are all fit in the Land Army'.

24 May 1918

In times past the preservation of meat during very hot weather caused housewives no little anxiety. Now, however the Food Controller has been instrumental in relieving them of the trouble. There are no uncooked joints in the pantry now, or in the pickling tub, for out meat ration is intended to supply only one day's needs, or at most provide for the morrow's necessity.
Our Ladies Budget, Carlisle Journal.

25 May 1918

The first award of the Victoria Cross to an officer of the Border Regiment since the Crimea War was announced in the local press this week. Lieutenant-Colonel Forbes-Robertson was commended for this conspicuous bravery whilst commanding the battalion during the heavy fighting. On four separate occasions he saved the line from breaking. Lieutenant-Colonel Forbes-Robertson, of Scottish parentage, was educated at Sedbergh School.

26 May 1918

Among the prisoners of war who have arrived in Holland from Germany for internment are Private J. Campbell (29102) and Private R. Wells (5030), Border Regiment.

27 May 1918

Westmorland Gazette. By arrangement of the RSPCA a 'Butterfly Day' collection has been made on behalf of wounded and war-worn horses in the following villages: Arnside £ 25, Beetham £ 7, Heversham and Milnthorpe £ 15.12s; and the total of £ 7 12s has been handed over to the society.

28 May 1918

A sale in aid of the Spark Bridge War Relief Sewing Meeting has been held at Springfield, Colton, from which the funds will benefit to the extent of about £ 70.

29 May 1918

This evening 56 wounded soldiers arrived at Kendal station for the VAD. There were 40 cot cases and 16 walking cases, and they were quickly detrained under the direction of Surgeon-Colonel Brumwell and Surgeon-Major Noble.

30 May 1918

SOLDIERS AND CIVILIANS WRITING PADS; in great variety from 4d. Townley and Taylor, 33 Allhallows Lane, Kendal.

31 May 1918

Empire Day at Milnthorpe. On Friday the flags were hoisted. At the National Boys School Mrs McNabb celebrated the day by singing patriotic songs and by special lessons on patriotism, after which each boy wrote an essay on the subject. In the afternoon they marched on to the Sands, where the Union Jack was unfurled, and the boys marched past and saluted.

01 June 1918

LOCAL SHELL GIRL'S RECORD. After the riveters, the shell girls are setting up a record. On their own initiative Evelyn Raven and Bertha Robson, two women at Vickers works, Barrow-in-Furness, worked eleven and a half hours at night to try to establish a record in wave-grooving 18 pounder shells. The competition was carried out under ordinary conditions. Evelyn Raven turned out 1,065 shells in the time, an average of 92.6 per hour and Bertha Robson 973, an average of 84.6. The highest number previously obtained in this period was 64.3

02 June 1918

LAKELAND WOODS AND THE AXE. The inhabitants at Patterdale and the Ullswater district generally are much perturbed by a report, which seems to have a substantial foundation, that some of the woods at the head of the valley are to come down to meet war needs. Surveyors and others have lately been at work, especially among the woods of Stybarrow, from Glencoyne Park to Grisedale - and their operations have included  the taking of levels for an inclined railway to the Lake.

03 June 1918

THE ARMY'S NEED FOR MEN. Strike of Cumberland Miners. The iron ore miners in Cumberland have struck work in consequence of the calling up for military service of those of their number who have reached the age of 19. It is alleged that these young men are exempted from recruitment by an agreement come to in April, 1917, but all such exemptions were withdrawn after the amendment of the Military Service Act, and due notice was  given of this fact.

04 June 1918

There has been some sad bungling with the control of butter up to recently. One village was rationed to one quarter of a pound per head, and across the street there was butter to be had ad lib. I know of adjoining farmers receiving a difference of 2d per pound because the produce is sent to different centres.
Letter signed AGRICOLA in this week's Carlisle Journal.

05 June 1918

A meeting of the Brampton Town Council was held at the Union Offices today, Mr J Lamb presiding. Captain Cousins wrote that he had been instructed by Major Wright, Commanding the Cumberland Volunteers, to write and ask if the Council could see their way to release Sergeant WS Taylor, who is a foreman sewer man and water main man, for three months' whole time service in the country. The Surveyor said that he could not possibly do without this man. The staff that they had at present was reduced to such a position that they could not afford to lose any man. If they sent this man away for two or three months they might as well close down; it was simply an existence now. The Chairman said that the man had the supervision of all the sewers and the water scheme. The Clerk was instructed to write to that effect.

06 June 1918

BRAMPTON. Today the Rev W. Younger, minister of the Central Primitive Church, Newcastle, visited Brampton. In the afternoon he preached in the Primitive Methodist Church, and in the evening delivered a lecture 'Britain after the war'. For over an hour he dealt with the subject in an eloquent and thrilling manner, the large audience thoroughly enjoying the remarks. Mr Younger on the subject is thoroughly optimistic.

07 June 1918

Kendal Police Court. Edith Bentley of Highgate, Kendal, applied for a separation order against her husband, Joseph Henry Bentley, on the grounds of persistent cruelty. Complainant said they were married in 1912. There were two children aged 3 and 4 years respectively. Since he came back from the war last October he had treated her cruelly, and her life had been a constant misery. Annie Heighton, widow, corroborated. He was a good husband before the war. The Chief Constable said complainant had come to him for police protection more than once. Cross-examined; Defendant had also been to see him. Defendant said he enlisted in the Borders in 1886 and was in the South African War. He was now wearing the discharged medal of the present war. He said the trouble was caused by a woman who would interfere. He had been married twice and was on an army pension of 11s a week. The bench granted the order with 5s a week and the custody of the children.

08 June 1918

WAR AND THE RAILWAY. How Carlisle is affected. Services cut down by almost a half. The effect on the Carlisle train services is now being severely felt. Gradually since 1914 the number and the speed of all trains on the lines which run into the city have been reduced, and with the entry of the present month we see the services on all the systems at a very low ebb. The reduction in the number of trains this month as compared with June of 1914 can be best understood by reference to the following figures which show the number of trains to and from Carlisle Railway Station. London and North Western, June 1914 46, June 1918 24; Midland 26, 14; North Eastern 28, 17 ; Maryport and Carlisle 18, 13; Caledonian 31, 21 : Glasgow and South Western 30, 18;  North British 22, 13; Silloth line June 1914 12, June 1918 6.

09 June 1918

Miss D Jackson, Hazel Bank, Yanwath, who is serving as a motor driver in the Royal Air Force, has been promoted to head driver for her station in the London area and is now driving the Squadron car, a 20-30 h.p. Crossley touring car. On Sunday June 9th she motored General Sir Henry Wilson CIGS to see the King and Queen and Princess Mary at their Pavilion in Aldershot and was presented to their Majesties, who talked to her most pleasantly  for a quarter of an hour.

10 June 1918

The death of Lance-Corporal Gentle (RA)  Norfolk Regiment at the early age of 19 shows up the fine spirit of young Britain (a correspondent writes in the Wigton Advertiser). For three years six months he has been in the Army, and has been home on leave once, but was stricken down with pleurisy, and lay in hospital in Crimone, Italy for some weeks. On admission at Englethwaite Hospital, Cotehil,  it was hoped that he would pull through, but grave symptoms developed, and he died (both parents being present) on June 10th. He was the oldest of six children and the only son. A short service was held by the Rev. J A Bott, before the coffin, covered with the Union Jack, and many beautiful floral wreaths, was carried down to Cotehill Station by the patients, all of whom were up being present. From there the coffin was forwarded to Huntingdonshire, the residence of his parents. The wreaths were from the patients, the staff and Nurse Murray, the Quarter-Master and the Commandant.

11 June 1918

At Kirkby Stephen police court this week Thomas Armstrong, pedlar, discharged soldier, was charged with stealing a pewter quart measure valued at 10s, the property of Robert Flegg, at Kirkby Stephen. While the furniture was being moved from the Jolly Farmer Inn to the Black Bull the pewter disappeared, and shortly afterwards, saying it had been given to him, prisoner sold the measure for 2s. Prisoner pleaded guilty, and said he was very sorry. He had been in France for three years and 72 days, and under very heavy fire. If the Bench convicted him he would lose his pension, free doctor, and character. It was whisky that did it. The Chairman said the Bench had agreed to put Armstrong on probation, and bind him over for three years.

12 June 1918

CHILDREN AND AGRICULTURAL WORK. At the recent  meeting of Penrith Council School managers a letter was read from the County Education Committee, giving permission for an alteration of the summer holidays to allow children to be usefully employed in food production. It was agreed that the holidays be as usual, but that an extra week be allowed in October for the potato gathering as was done last year.

13 June 1918

Westmorland Gazette. Official or otherwise reliable reports of casualties to local men are inserted free in the 'Westmorland Gazette' when communicated by relatives or friends. It is suggested that in all cases where publication is desired the information should be sent promptly either to the 'Gazette' Office direct, or in districts outside Kendal to a 'Gazette' correspondent.

14 June 1918

One of the propositions discussed at the meeting of the Westmorland County Council  today was the desirability or otherwise of getting gangs of German prisoners for work upon the county roads which have deteriorated for want of attention, are deteriorating, and ought to be restored.

15 June 1918

THE MEDICAL EXAMINATION. Sir - As one of the 41's and upwards I was medically examined at the Richmond Hall, Carlisle. Having heard of unseemliness in respect to exposure of nudity I can relieve all and sundry from the fear as we had private cubicles, steam-heated and cosy and attention of the best. From the moment of entering in the first preliminary office, from the clerks, one and all up to the highest official present, we were treated with the greatest kinds, and civility. Thanks those in charge and you in anticipation. I am yours JHH, Heads Nook. [Letter in today's Carlisle Journal] .

16 June 1918

Workington Tribunal was held this week. Jackson Hartley, 23 married, Grade 1, who grounds for application was a debt of £ 14 incurred in burying a child, was refused exemption from military service.

17 June 1918

Cockermouth Rural Tribunal sat today. A woman described her brother, 46 years of age, single, as a man who was so little capable of taking care of himself that she had to accompany him to Carlisle when he went up for medical examination. The man was put in Grade 2. He was granted exemption to November 30th on condition that he works three days a week on neighbouring farms.

18 June 1918

The monthly meeting of the Local Advisory Committee of the Central Control (Liquor Traffic) Board reported that the following inns had been closed; Admiral Nelson, Dalston Rd, Carlisle, Anchor Inn, Beckfoot, Queen's Head, Westnewton.  The General Manager reported that the following houses had been put under direct management.- the Albion, Balmoral, Criffel, Royal, and Cumberland, all Silloth; Bush, Abbey Town; Appletree, Mealsgate; Coach and Horses, Langrigg; Duke of Wellington, Oughterside; Grapes, Allonby; Lowther Arms, Mawbray; New Inn, Blencogo; and the Skinburness Hotel.

19 June 1918

In reply to an appellant at the today's Carlisle Rural Tribunal who expressed surprise that men between 40 and 50 should be called up while so many younger men should be seen on the streets of Carlisle, the National Service Representative pointed out that a great number of these young men had either been rejected or were in Grade 3, while others held protection certificates. Mr Phelps, the National Service Representative in question, doubted whether there were three men in Carlisle under 41 who had not got some sort of certificate in their pockets.

20 June 1918

Tripe is one of the few kinds of meat which may be bought without coupons, but it is not very acceptable to many people. Perhaps the method of cooking it are not varied enough, and rarely is it sufficiently cooked, which is only when it can be pierced with a straw. Fried in butter it is good, and excellent if served with shallot sauce. Make it thus: skin and mince a dozen shallots, and add a piece of garlic the small of a size of a pea. This may be objected to, but most good cooks are in favour of this addition. Put them into a stew pan with a slice of butter and a teaspoon of strained lemon juice, a little salt cayenne and mixed mustard.  Stir these ingredients briskly over a quick fire for five minutes, add gradually a quarter of a pint of milk and simmer the sauce for a few minutes longer. Lift the pan from the fire, let the contents cool a little, say two minutes, then stir in the yolk of an egg beaten with a quarter of a pint of milk or cream, and whisk over the fire for a minute or so, but on no account allow the sauce to boil.

21 June 1918

Nurse Esther Hewetson, Oakbank, Kirkoswald, who was on the staff of Wordsworth Street Hospital at Penrith in 1915, and afterwards for over a year at Newcastle War Hospital, is now in a hospital in France which has been receiving the attention of the Germans. In a letter last week she wrote: "The grounds are being spoiled, and wee garden beds we took such pride in are to be no more; protecting trenches sandbags instead. We have been quite safe 'till lately - no damage just near. despite three raids, much shrapnel and many alarms. Don't you think it's the most ghastly thing Fritz has done yet, to bomb hospitals."

22 June 1918

At a meeting of the East Westmorland Tribunal at Kirkby Stephen  today the case of J E Bonsfield  was heard. Mr. Bonsfield (25 Grade 1 single) was described as farming on his own account at Stainmore and helping his father. He was given six months exemption. It was stated that he was the only son remaining in civil life, two having been killed in the war and one being missing.

23 June 1918

STRAWBERRIES. Owing  to Government restrictions P H Cornthwaite wishes to inform the Public that he CANNOT SUPPLY ANY PRIVATE ORDERS FOR STRAWBERRIES OR GOOSEBERRIES THIS YEAR. This week's Westmorland Gazette.

24 June 1918

BOTCHERGATE PICTURE HOUSE, Carlisle. 'The Premier Cinema'. All this week there will be screened at this house only MY FOUR YEARS IN GERMANY being the pictorial narrative of Ambassador J W Gerard's life at the Kaiser's court in Berlin. Genuine pictures of the treatment of British prisoners, of Hindenburg with the German army, Von Tirpitz etc. The greatest propaganda film ever issued.

25 June 1918

The question as to the adherence to the resolution passed in April 1915 suspending all wrestling under its authority, except at military sports and in events for youths, was discussed at some length in Carlisle on Thursday by the Board Governing Wrestling in the Cumberland and Westmorland style. The matter arose after a proposal to hold a wrestling competition in Workington for the purposes of raising money  for the Cumberland Prisoners of War Fund.  After discussing the matter the board came to the conclusion that there was no real reason why it should depart from the attitude already taken up on the matter.

26 June 1918

S.O.S. SAVE OUR SOLDIERS. Hundreds saved. Thousands wearing. No metal. No splinters. If the fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, relatives and friends of the boys knew what the CHEMICO Non Metallic Body Shield has already done, if they could see the thousands of unsolicited testimonials which we hold, every soldier in the British Army would soon have one. INVESTIGATE. Shields may be seen and purchased in Carlisle from A. CAMPBELL BROWN, 21 English Street, Carlisle.

27 June 1918

BARROW POLICE COURT. Fraudulently using sugar ticket. Isabella Cartwright pleaded guilty to fraudulently using a sugar ticket between March 23rd and June 22nd. Food inspector J Vickers said the defendant had obtained sugar and other rations for seven persons, whereas there were only three people in her house. Fined £ 5 and costs.

28 June 1918

MILLOM. Mines Comb Out.  The late official arrangement to take only three percent of the West Cumberland miners have now been cancelled and the original demands reverted to, with possibility of increase. Some 150 men at Hodbarrow, up to 23 years of age, received their army medical notices this week, and more are expected to be called as soon as they have been dealt with.

29 June 1918

BARROW NEWS. The following story was reported in today's paper. 'What would you do if the Germans came over here?' a conscientious objector at Essex Appeal Tribunal was asked.  'Avoid them as much as possible' was the reply.

30 June 1918

EAST WESTMORLAND RURAL TRIBUNAL. At Appleby today. A Tebay district man applied for exemption and on being asked how many children he had he had retorted 'Three and mebbe four. Ther' were three when I com' away this morning but there'll mebbe another when I get back (Laughter) Given three months exemption.

01 July 1918

At the meeting of the Carlisle City Council this week Mr. Gibbings will move the following motion.  1] That all alien enemies should be at once deported on the declaration of peace. 2] That all naturalised persons of enemy origins should be removed from public office. 3] That German and other alien enemy businesses should be wound up. 4] That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to the Prime Minister and the member of Parliament for the City.

02 July 1918

This afternoon Private Max van Vlack, ASC, attached to the Whinfell Forestry Corps, was brought from Carlisle to Penrith, having died at the Fusehill Hospital. He belonged to Picton, Ontario. A military band played the Death March on the way to the cemetery, where Captain Edmison, Chaplain, conducted the service. The coffin, wrapped in a Union Jack, was carried on a lumber wagon. Three volleys were fired over the grave and the trumpeters sounded the 'Last Post'. The numerous wreaths included tributes  from Major Walker, the officers, sergeants and men.

03 July 1918

A flag day in aid of the French War Emergency Fund for rendering help to hospitals and succour for the ruined villages in France was held in Brampton today and proved highly successful. One or two collecting boxes have yet to come in, but a sum of £ 34 has been received to this evening. Flags and other French national emblems were sold throughout the day by a large committee of ladies with previous experience of similar collections, who worked very energetically. The local arrangements were supervised by the Rev GJ Goodman. For the same object the sum of £ 10 was received for admission to Naworth Castle, which was open to visitors on Wednesday and Thursday afternoons, by permission of Lady Carlisle.

04 July 1918

ULVERSTON DISTRICT WAR AGRICULTURAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Notice to farmers. In order that proper provision may be made for the obtaining of sacks to meet the increased requirements it is necessary that Farmers should take immediate steps to provide themselves with the Sacks they need. Arrangements are being made to ear-mark a number of Sacks for this district and Farmers desiring to obtain supplies should apply at once to the undersigned, setting forth the number required. JS Webster, Hon Secretary, Valuation Department, Inland Revenue, Market Square, Lancaster.

05 July 1918

Today Coniston schools had a day's holiday in honour of the award of the Victoria Cross to local lad Lance-Corporal James Hewitson. His parents have been the happy recipients of many congratulations from neighbours whilst letters and telegrams have brought many messages of a similar character.

06 July 1918

A rally of women workers was held at Penrith this week, and aroused the keenest interest of a great crowd of people. The women workers in their various uniforms massed near the station, and led by the band of the South Lancashire Regiment marched in procession around the town. There were also lorries displaying representations of the various types of work upon which the women are engaged. Mr WT Lawrence, Newton Rigg, urged that farmers must be forbearing with women workers, and not expect them to be able to do impossibilities after only four to six weeks training.

07 July 1918

Lost on Sunday evening, [7th July]  between Windermere and Kendal, via Burneside, Lady's grey suede purse containing 10s Note, several Half-crowns, Sixpenny pieces and Coppers; also separate Shilling wrapped in paper, keepsake from soldier killed in France. Finder rewarded on returning same to Kendal Police Station.

08 July 1918

Barrow; Submarine HMS H29 launched. British Navy [Scrapped 1935].

09 July 1918

Cruiser HMS Calcutta launched at Barrow [Sunk 01.06.1941 by Luftwaffe Junkers in the Mediterranean].

10 July 1918

The Carlisle Town Clerk announced that the preparation of the new ration books which come into operation on July 14th is nearing completion, and the majority of the books will be in the hands of the public within the next few days. Full instructions on the use of  the books are set out on the front and back of each book. The ration scale is at present as follows; Sugar 8oz per person per week; Butter or Margarine or both, 5oz per head per week; Lard 2oz per head per week. Three coupons can be used for uncooked meat on and after July 14th, each coupon being valued at 7d, and the fourth coupon or any of the other three can be used for cooked meats, sausages, bacon, poultry, game etc. according to the table of equivalent weights which is posted in the shops of all meat retailers.

11 July 1918

Mr and Mrs Barnes, The Athenaeum, Maryport, had a  double blow last week. Yesterday they learnt that their grandson Private J. Barnes, Notts and Derby Regiment, whom they had brought up, was missing, and today they had news that their son-in-law, Private T. Greenweir, RGA, had died from gas-shell wounds.

12 July 1918

Mr and Mrs John Banks, 12 Swan Street, Ulverston, have received an official intimation that their third son Sergeant Jno. Edward Banks, KORLR, died from wounds at a Canadian clearing station in France on June 22nd. In a sympathetic letter from the chaplain it is stated that Sergeant Banks was admitted to the hospital on the morning of the date named suffering from serious gunshot wounds, one leg and an arm having been practically blown off, and that he succumbed to his injuries a few hours later. The deceased soldier, who was at the outbreak of the war a member of the local Territorial Force, during his three years active service in France and Belgium had passed unscathed through the terrific battles of Fustabert, Ypres and other engagements in which the King's Own particularly distinguished themselves. He was almost 24 years of age and at the time of mobilisation was employed by Vickers Limited. Much sympathy is expressed with the family. Another son was killed in the war, a month ago Mrs Banks lost her father, and last week the death occurred of a grandchild.

13 July 1918

The firm of Messrs J. Hepworth and Son Limited, wholesale manufacturing clothiers, Leeds, have sent a cheque for £ 50 to Mr Joseph Collin, a Carlisle railwayman living at 8 Petteril Terrace, Harraby, Carlisle, in recognition of the Victoria Cross gained  posthumously by his son Lieutenant J H Collin, who prior to the war was employed as a shop assistant at their Carlisle branch.

14 July 1918

Lance-Corporal B. O'Brien MM, Border Regiment, a well-known Frizington man, who frequently played his violin in public, is reported by the Germans to have died in a field ambulance. He was wounded on March 22nd and died six days later.

15 July 1918

Today at Shap Police Court, Robert Waiting, farmer, Melkinthorpe, Lowther, who did not appear, was charged under the Defence of the Realm Act with neglecting to make a return of his live stock to the Food Controller. On May 20th Police-constable Stamper, Clifton, left a form at defendant's farm, and when he called for it on June 5th defendant said he had destroyed it. He had just filled one in for the Board, and they can get the particulars from it. Superintendent Dickinson pointed out that the form stated the penalty for non-compliance to be £ 100. Defendant was fined £ 20 and costs, the alternatives being two months' imprisonment.

16 July 1918

Sergeant J C Graham, East Yorkshire Regiment, Newbiggin, has been killed instantly by a shell. He was bomb instructor in his battalion and had been once wounded.  He leaves a widow (formerly Miss Holliday, Flimby) and six children. By a strange coincidence Mrs Graham's brother, who was married to her husband's sister, was killed a year ago leaving a widow and six children. Sergeant Graham's parents had four sons and a grandson serving. One of the sons is a prisoner, and the grandson was killed in the Dardanelles.

17 July 1918

What the new proposals are for building further houses it is premature to say. Negotiations are in progress, I believe, between the Corporation, Ministry of Munitions, and Messrs Vickers, and possibly these may result in something more ambitious being attempted than at present. There have been over 2,000 applications for houses, and while some of the worst cases of overcrowding have been removed, there is still, unfortunately, a good deal of congestion and undesirable and unhealthy conditions prevailing in many houses in Barrow [this week's Barrow News].

18 July 1918

To the Editor of the Westmorland Gazette. Sir - I should be pleased to have names and particulars of any Kendal men in Edinburgh hospitals with the object of visiting them and bringing them together when they are in the convalescent stage. I am etc.,  Wm McKinnell, 8 Picardy Place, Edinburgh.

19 July 1918

For the best entertainment given in Carlisle for a long time. A CHILDREN'S PAGEANT to be performed by over 300 Local Children and Adults under the Distinguished Patronage of the Lord Bishop of Carlisle and Mrs Diggle, the Earl and Countess of Lonsdale, the Mayor and Mayoress of Carlisle and other Ladies and Gentlemen. In aid of the SPECIAL WAR EMERGENCY FUND OF THE WAIFS AND STRAYS SOCIETY, now supporting over 9,000 Sailors' and Soldiers' Children. HER MAJESTY'S THEATRE, Carlisle, Thursday, Friday and Saturday July 18th, 19th and 20th at 7:30pm. Tickets 3s, 2s 4d, 1s 10d, 1s 3d and 8d. Early doors for ticket holders.

20 July 1918

BELGIAN DAY IN MILLOM. The large number of Belgians resident in Millom celebrated their national independence day in fitting manner this weekend. On Saturday, a flag day was held in aid of the Belgian Childhood Fund (Holland), and the town was paraded by the Belgian, Holborn Hill and Salvation Army Bands, and collections made on behalf of this most deserving of objects  The receipts totalled £ 11 11s 7d.

21 July 1918

SEND THE HUNS A BOMB FROM HOLM CULTRAM. All this week men, women and children - your own friends, neighbours and fellow-citizens - have been hurrying to lend their money to their country, and thus help the men who are fighting for them. Join the throng of patriotic investors. Share the success of Aeroplane Week. By closing time tonight thousands of pounds will have been lent towards the grand total which Holme Cultural Urban District means to invest this week in National War Bonds and War Savings Certificates. Holme Cultram's' Own AEROPLANE. This is to be prize of success - the name of 'Holme Cultram U.D.' on our aeroplane- the name that will remind our lads at the Front how the Urban District of Holme Cultural lent its money to help them. [This week's Carlisle Journal].

22 July 1918

ON TO BERLIN. The war picture with this title which is being screened at the Wigton Picture Palace this week should prove of unusual interest. Based on America's entry into the great world conflict, the picture portrays incidents on the pit-marked fields of glory 'Somewhere in France' - British Tanks in  action - brilliant hand to hand skirmishes - the heroes and heroism of war in a  vivid series of pictures interwoven in an engrossing romance of a brave Yankee soldier and a Red Cross girl.

23 July 1918

TOWN HALL, Kendal. Mr J. A. Kensit will  give his Great War Lantern Lecture 'PLOTS FOR BRITAIN'S DOWNFALL' or 'Is Rome Behind the War' on Tuesday July 23rd, 1918. Chair will be taken by Alderman J. Monkhouse, JP. Collection for Wickliffe Preachers' Bible Work. Free complimentary tickets may be obtained from W H Denbow, 102 Highgate, Kendal, the Local Organizer.

24 July 1918

SAINT BEES SCHOOL annual speech day was held this week.  Speaking of the school's war record the Head said that one hundred and three, including four masters, had been killed in action, twenty-three had died of wounds,  fourteen had died on service and two had been lost at sea, while seven were missing, one-hundred and seventy-eight had been wounded, and thirteen were prisoners of war. The number of honours won by former boys of the school was  one hundred and forty-nine, which included three VCs, ten DSO's, six bars to MC, fifty-eight MC's, three MM's, two DCM's, fifty-eight mentioned in dispatches and five foreign decorations.

25 July 1918

SEND THE HUNS A BOMB FROM SEDBERGH. All this week, men, women and children - your own friends and neighbours and fellow-citizens - have been hurrying to lend their money to their country, and thus help the men who are fighting for them. Join the throng of patriotic investors. Share the success of aeroplane week. This is to be the prize of success - the name of Sedbergh on our aeroplane - a name that will remind our County lads at the front how Sedbergh lent money to help them. Buy Today National War Bonds and War Savings Certificates.

26 July 1918

We are informed that it is intended to publish a roll, similar to that which was published by the 1st Battalion, of the officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the 2nd Border Regiment (The old 35th) who went to France with the First Expeditionary Force, and those who wish to have copies are asked to send their names to Captain Cockle, Border Depot. The cost will be about 4s each. Carlisle Journal.

27 July 1918

 

Mr and Mrs W Butler, Prior's Lea, Barrow, have given £ 500 to endow a bed in Barrow Hospital in memory of their soldier sons. A brass tablet has the following inscription. THE BUTLER BED. This bed is named in loving memory of William Lewis Butler, XIII Lonsdale Regiment, who was killed in action in France, 19th April 1915, aged 23 years; and also of Geoffrey Lewis Butler, Lieutenant IV Lancashire Fusiliers, who was killed in action in Flanders, 15 May, 1917, aged 20 years.

28 July 1918

VISITORS' FOOD DEADLOCK. Visitors in many parts of the Vale of Eden, Westmorland are unable to obtain food because they cannot get from the Food Officer declaration form no. 17, without which no grocer may supply food to non-residents. On enquiry at the food office it was found that the executive had made repeated attempts to obtain a supply of these forms, only to be told that they were out of print. One visitor travelled 33 miles, but was unable to get a form.

29 July 1918

Coniston is a word to conjure with. It is the birthplace of the Old Man. It is the burial place of Ruskin. It is the home of a soldier who has won the VC; and within its borders, to crown all, have recently been issued calling-up papers in respect of one who has been dead over six years, another who is totally blind, and a third who is 61 years old. A fear is now expressed in the village that Coniston Old Man himself will not much longer be able to escape on the score of antiquity [This week's Westmorland Gazette].

30 July 1918

A correspondent signing herself 'Marion Martindale, Gilpin Bridge, Crook' writes to complain of a note in this column last week, on the subject of a suicide in Bowness, because it was not sympathetic. In order to convey her own notion of sympathy with the unfortunate man who died, she writes 'He couldn't face it to go and fight to kill his fellow men. He had nothing to fight for. He had no quarrels with the Germans. Those that make wars ought to be made to fight them. He is not the first that has been driven to suicide through this war and he won't be the last, if this war is allowed to go on much longer'. There is doubtless sympathy of a sort in that passage. But there is also perversity of the sort which precludes sound judgement; and in such a case as that in question sound judgement is preferable to unsound sympathy [This week's Westmorland Gazette].

31 July 1918

BARROW BOYS AT BRAMPTON. Thirty-five boys from Barrow Secondary School, whose services have been placed at the disposal of farmers for work on the land, during hay time, arrived at Brampton on Tuesday 9th July in charge of Mr W B Thompson, one of the masters of Barrow Secondary School. The boys on their arrival were treated to a good hot meal at the Secondary School, provided for them by the female teaching staff, under the direction of Mr Cousins, the Headmaster. They afterwards indulged in games of tennis and cricket. Arrangements were made for the lads to go under canvas in the park adjoining the school. The lads, aged from 15 to 17 years, are all very keen and looking forward to the work before them. They have been placed out on farms in the immediate neighbourhood and as many of them have brought their own bicycles they cycle to and from their work each day. The camp will continue until July 31st. The boys rate of pay is 4d per hour, and they are expected to put in a working day of at least nine hours.

01 August 1918

Wigton Urban Tribunal. This week the National Service applied for the review of the case of Jacob Miller, general dealer and iron merchant (Grade 2, widower, 7 children) - He said he had two men and horses engaged in carting pit props for Mr Latimer, Mealsgate. He sold about 80 tons of iron a year to the Government. He also kept 'an old man of sixty who just dodged about the yard'. The National Service appealed was turned down.

02 August 1918

The Ravenstonedale working party have dispatched to the British Red Cross Society, as a result of its work during June and July, 32 pairs of socks and 42 other garments, some of these articles being made from material supplied by the Red Cross Society.

03 August 1918

The Barrow magistrates had a busy day on Wednesday, when they were occupied for about seven hours sifting a number of prosecutions against local farmers for selling milk in excess of the controlled price. There were 14 cases altogether, but the number of summonses ran to about 500. One defendant had no less than 77 summonses. Twelve of the defenders were fined various amounts from £ 25 to £ 1, and the total haul was £ 130, to which had to be added the costs, representing about the same money. The farmers had sold the milk at 1s 3d and 1s 2d per gallon to retailers in Barrow during May and part of June, when they were only lawfully entitled to charge 1s per gallon.

04 August 1918

Kendal Parish Church. The vicar in the course of today's sermon said: "Today is the anniversary of the war. We may thank God that we are here... I would like, for a moment, to examine into the causes of this great war. I suppose there is no doubt whatever that the primary and fundamental cause of this war is the swollen armaments of Europe. This evil was begun by Napoleon and had more or less gone on ever since".

05 August 1918

It was reported today that to the end of July Mr W Fleming, Penrith, has collected 124,607 eggs for the wounded, the cash value being £ 1,114.

06 August 1918

Out of the fund raised at Aspatria by subscription in order to make presents to the soldiers belonging to the town who have gained military distinction, a gold watch and chain were presented on Tuesday night in the Market Hall to Sergeant T Telford (home on leave) son of Mr Telford, Stock Hill, Brayton, and the presentation was made by Mr George Bell. At intervals the town's band played a selection of music.

07 August 1918

WESTMORLAND WAR AGRICULTURAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE; Horticultural Committee. Blackberry collection for Army and Navy needs. In consequence of the great scarcity of other Fruit, it is most important in the interests of the Food Supply of the Army and Navy that every Blackberry should be gathered and preserved this season. To this end the Ministry of Food solicit the help of Farmers and Landowners, in allowing access to the land, for the purpose; and to those of the community who can, to gather and bring in.

08 August 1918

At Armathwaite today, the marriage took place of Capt Alan Borradaile Johnson, Border Regiment, and Miss Victoria Mary Constance Ecroyd, eldest daughter of Mr T B Ecroyd, Low House, Armathwaite. The band of the Border Regiment was in attendance. A guard of honour with arched bayonets was formed at the church-gate by non-commissioned officers of the Border Regiment at Carlisle.  On her way to the church the bride passed under three triumphal arches of evergreens, on one of which was the design of a little black cat, tied with the colours of the Border Regiment.

09 August 1918

WESTMORLAND WAR AGRICULTURAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Labour and the Harvest. German Prisoner Labour. The committee is endeavouring to form three camps of 10 German prisoners each. These camps are proposed at Kendal Workhouse, Milnthorpe Workhouse and a place to be agreed in the West Ward. Applications for this labour should be addressed to the Secretary, 15 Lowther Street, Kendal, who will supply full particulars as to costs and how the prisoners will be dealt with.

10 August 1918

It has been decided to erect a small temporary war memorial in Dalston Church to the Dalston men who have fallen in the war. The design has been selected for the memorial, which will be made of the teak wood and copper from the training ship HMS Britannia. It will be in the form of a triptych, which, when closed, can be locked. The sign of the faith will occupy the central panel, and on the panels on either side the names of the dead will be inscribed in gold.  Surmounting the tablet will be the motto 'For God, King and Empire' with the text 'Greater love hath no man than this'. There will be a projecting ledge at the bottom for flowers. The cost will be about £ 15, the whole of which, it is hoped, will be raised by voluntary subscription.

11 August 1918

The Prisoners of War Fund at Workington has reached £ 1,107. It benefitted to the extent of £ 300 by the sale of tickets for the sports on Saturday; donations amount to £ 443; collections £ 251; and the Flay Day realised £ 113.

12 August 1918

Mr Tom Alderson, son of Mr W Alderson, Appleby, is presumed lost at sea, the Cunard Shipping Company having notified the relatives that there is no hope that he was saved. He was a passenger on one of the Cunard boats torpedoed on May 30th.

13 August 1918

At Kirkby Stephen Police Court today a soldier in uniform wearing a wound stripe, who refused to divulge his name or any other information regarding himself, was charged with being absent from his regiment. PC Irving stated that he had encountered the man in Kirkby Stephen the previous evening, when the latter asked him where he could procure lodgings for the night. In consequence of his dirty appearance and apparently dazed condition, witness asked him to produce his pass, but he failed to do so. He also declined to furnish witness with any personal details, stating that he could not remember anything. From documents found upon him it appeared he belonged to the RAF, and had been in camp in Catterick. He was remanded for enquiries.

14 August 1918

Mrs Varley, of Park Schoolhouse, Bewcastle , has received a letter (dated May 11th) from her son AB William Varley, who has been prisoner at Nitsch, in Germany, since March, but until a few days ago his whereabouts were unknown. He states that he is quite well and has 'a tremendous appetite'. He adds that he will be glad to receive some 'good filling stuff as early as possible, oatmeal, plum duff but no fancy bits are needed'.

15 August 1918

At the Town Hall in Carlisle Mr Edwin Jamieson, 38 Spencer Street, Carlisle, was summoned under the Defence of the Realm Act for making statements likely to prejudice recruiting, and also for making statements likely to cause disaffection to his Majesty. He was accused of saying, amongst other things, 'If our Army had been officered by men educated and trained as the officers of the German Army had, they would have committed outrages equally bad' and 'What assistance have we rendered the French? What use have our 5 million men been? The French Army successfully resisted big offensives and the first time they attack us they take 35,000 to 40,000 prisoners and chase us back 30 miles. Our Army has done nothing'. The defendant was fined £ 55.10s, including costs. The defendant said he would appeal.

16 August 1918

ALLAN - MISSING WOUNDED. Since the 10th April, Sec-Lieu JWA Allan, A Company, Border Regiment. His mother Mrs Allan, 12 Cambridge Gardens, Leith, nr Edinburgh, will be very grateful if Friends or Prisoners will kindly make enquiry when writing to Germany. If you have any news of him please send to the above address. [Today's Carlisle Journal] .

17 August 1918

Barrow News:  IN SPITE OF WAR RATIONS. Fat people still in evidence.  Notwithstanding that we are in the fifth year of war, that we are rationed in food and that we hear a great deal of clothes hanging like sacks upon men and women, there are still fat people to be encountered. Dr Frank Colling, an Essex coroner, at an inquest on Frederick Innard (63)  ironically remarked 'Some people grumble still, but here is a  man who dies in the fifth year of the war from an excess of fat on all his organs. Our rations, meagre at first, are now generous compared with the conditions in Germany. We are in clover.'

18 August 1918

SUNDAY LABOUR. This is a difficult problem always, and doubly so in the next few weeks, when every day will be so valuable in saving the crop. Whether it is right or wrong to work on Sundays it is a question that is very difficult for the clergy or anyone else to decide for others, or to advise upon. It seems that everyone must use his own judgement. If a man thinks it is wrong, then it is probably wrong for him. To a man who thinks it is right, probably it is right for him. One cannot but admire anyone who is prepared to risk his crop sooner than take it in on a Sunday because he thinks it is wrong. But the majority seem to think that under pressing circumstances it is quite justifiable.

19 August 1918

IMPORTANT WAR NOTICE. To the residents of Carlisle and District. Dear Sir or Madam, During the last three years owing to diminution of staff and extra business we have been compelled to work almost every night until 9pm. In future to enable us to keep up with our orders and repairs WE INTEND TO CLOSE OUR DOORS AT 6pm DURING THE WEEK, and 8pm ON SATURDAYS, INSTEAD of 7 and 9pm respectively.  Your obedient Servants J W Johnston, Ophthalmic Opticians, 53 Castle Street, Carlisle. A local firm with a world-wide reputation.

20 August 1918

WORKINGTON BOYS AT BECKERMET. Twenty-nine boys belonging to the Workington Technical and Secondary School, housed in a camp in Beckermet by the Cumberland War Agricultural Committee, have been working the land since August 20th, and will continue their labours until September 20th. They have found the work strenuous, but are thoroughly enjoying their vigorous outdoor life, and are happy in the consciousness that they are 'doing their bit'.  The farmers have been delighted with the assistance they have been given.

21 August 1918

Mrs Peel, 9 Church Street, Wigton, today received an official telegram that her husband, Private Isaac Peel (Border Rgt) died in hospital in France on Monday last, from a gunshot wound sustained about the 12th inst. when 'going over the top'. Pte Peel was 33 years old and had joined up, as a time expired Territorial, in the first week of war and had served in France ever since.

22 August 1918

A sale of work done by the wounded soldiers at the Cockermouth Castle Hospital, in aid of the Comforts Fund, and held at the Castle this afternoon,  proved a great success.  The principal stall was that containing the handiwork of the patients which included examples of fancy needlework, basketwork, mats and other articles. The sale was opened by Lord Leconfield, who was thanked on the motion of Mr Gandy, County Director of the VAD.

23 August 1918

The misuse of motor spirit in a car hired at Windermere by an officer who desired to show a lady the beauties of the Lake District, has this week been followed by a fine of £ 4 upon the persons who supplied and drove the car. The joy-riders had got as far as Coniston before they were stopped and questioned; and the case was heard in the Hawkshead Police Court.  The use of motor spirit by officers in England, even when they are ostensibly engaged in work of military importance, is now being supervised and criticised more rigorously than it was; therefore any officer who contemplates a joy-ride pure and simple should avoid a car, or be prepared for squalls.

24 August 1918

Stainton near Barrow. Under the auspices of the Furness and Lake District Hound Trailing Association, a trail was held today, the proceeds being for the benefit  of relatives of one of the 'fallen heroes' of the village. The public responded most generously to the efforts of Mr Hands, the secretary, for there was an excellent attendance.

25 August 1918

IRVING. In loving memory of William Glaister Irving, third officer steamship - drowned through the  torpedoing of his ship 25th August 1917. Ever Remembered by his Father, Mother and Sister, Annandale House, Silloth.

26 August 1918

WIGTON. Arrival of German Prisoners. About sixty German prisoners intended for work in the harvest arrived at the 'six' camps in the Wigton Union today. Accompanied by two guards and four policemen they marched through the town, for their camp near Red Dial.  They were the object of much interest.

27 August 1918

This week memorial portraits of Second Lieutenant Isaac Sowerby, Royal Warwickshire Regiment, and Second Lieutenant George H McVitie, Border Regiment, were unveiled in Penrith Boys' National School. Both officers were teachers in the school and lost their lives in the war. The Rev RH Law unveiled the portraits, and stated that it was intended to erect in the school a tablet bearing the names of the many boys who have fallen in the war.

28 August 1918

CANADIAN CAMP, HOW MILL. Grand Athletic  Sports. Wednesday, August 28th at 1:30pm. Flat racing, hurdle racing, jumping, tossing the caber and shot, tug-of-war, shooting competition, officers' race and if time permits an Exhibition Baseball Game.
Band of the Chadwick Memorial School. Admission - One shilling. Children under 15, half-price. Whole proceeds in aid of Border Prisoners of War Fund.

29 August 1918

Today under a new order apple vendors in Wigton Market on Tuesday were stopped by the Local Food Control authorities from retailing cooking apples of a size smaller than would pass through a two inch mesh. Such smaller fruit has to be sold for jam-making only, at control price, which is considerably below the 6s per stone at which apples were being retailed.

30 August 1918

Joseph Edward Wuyts, aged 32, of 39 King Street, Millom, a riveter employed by the Millom Ironworks, was accused of stealing a quantity of leather belonging to his employer.  The police enquiries not having been completed yet, he was remanded on his own bail till Saturday 31st August. Wuyts is a Flemish speaking Belgian refugee.

31 August 1918

An aeroplane fluttered down in a field in the Lake District recently and immediately the whole infant population being on holiday poured into the same pasture. The airman who had lost his bearings innocently asked the youngsters 'Where am I?' The children were amused by the question, and when the airman pressed it with evident seriousness he received the reply 'Why th's in Johnny Gibson's field of course'. So the airman restarted his engine and went to seek information in a part where the world is not bounded by 'Johnny Gibson's fields'. [Reported in this week's Westmorland Gazette].

01 September 1918

W and A. A. Hartley and Family, 1 Rawlinson Street, Barrow, desire to thank all friends for letters of sympathy and kindness shown in the loss of their son, Victor, killed in action on September 1st 1918.

02 September 1918

Barrow Guardians. The fortnightly meeting of the Barrow Guardians [Workhouse] was held this morning. A question arose as to the continuing of the insurance against air raids. Mr T McGregor remarked that while he did not think there was any danger of air raids in this part, still no one knew what might happen, and he thought it advisable to renew the policy. The Chairman thought the Board had no right to run risks with the ratepayers' money.

03 September 1918

ASPATRIA. At a meeting of the Food Control Committee today a letter from the local miners' lodge asking for a larger ration of meat, lard and butter for miners in view of the arduous nature of their work was directed to be forwarded to the Ministry of Food.

04 September 1918

Mrs Robert Henry Sanderson of 7 Henry Street, Bransty, Whitehaven today received the news of the death of her husband, Bombardier R H Sanderson, RFA, who was killed on 28th August by a German shell as he was on the way to rejoin his battery after returning to the front after his marriage, which took place at Whitehaven. His death was instantaneous, and he was buried the next day. Bombardier Sanderson was 25 years old and the third son of Mr and Mrs JW Sanderson, Bransty. He was formerly a clerk at the Carlisle Electricity Works. After taking part in the Gallipoli campaign he was one of the last to leave the peninsula. He was the holder of the Serbian Gold Medal, awarded by King Peter for services rendered. The news of the death, coming so soon after his marriage, caused a painful feeling in Whitehaven, and much sympathy will be extended to his young widow and his parents in their great bereavement.

05 September 1918

BORDER REGIMENT PRISONERS OF WAR FUND. Piper W S Irving, the Soldier Ventriloquist, supported by a party of talented Local Artistes, will give under the auspices of the Carlisle Citizens League, weather permitting, an OPEN AIR VARIETY ENTERTAINMENT at the BAND STAND, THE BITTS, on Thursday Evening Next, September 5th, at 7 o'clock in the evening prompt. Collection in aid of the Border Regiment Prisoner of War Fund.

06 September 1918

Part of the winning entry from Mary Anderson, aged 13, of Scotby, in this week's Carlisle Journal Kaiser Soldier Rhyme competition:
Ten Kaiser's soldier men, marching on the line
A stray bullet got one and then there were nine
Nine Kaiser's soldier men yelling 'Hymn of Hate'
One yelled himself to death, then there were eight
Seven Kaiser's soldier men down nine the U11
A seaplane bombed one, and then there were seven
Seven Kaiser's soldiers men playing dirty tricks
A Yankee's bayonet stopped one, then there were six
Six Kaiser's soldiers men very much alive
One wallowed in lager beer, then there were five.

07 September 1918

Captain H S Briggs, Canadians, son-in-law of the Reverend Seymour Shaw, Warcop Vicarage, was amongst the officers repatriated from Holland today.

08 September 1918

AWARDS BY THE KING OF SERBIA. For distinguished service rendered during the course of the campaign. Gold Medal for Zealous Service to Colour Sergeant-Major H Robinson, ASC, of Cockermouth.

09 September 1918

At Wigton County Court today, Mr Milburn, solicitor, Brampton, applied for the payment out of court of £ 50 to Mr and Mrs Thomas E Taylor, of Chapel Lane, Brampton, as compensation for the loss of their son, Thomas E Taylor, who was killed by a fall from a horse when working as farm servant, with Mrs Ritson, Hawkrigg House, Wigton, -  Mr Taylor said that it was his intention to buy National War Bonds with the money (less £ 11 10s funeral expenses), and on this understanding his Honour awarded the money to be paid to him.

10 September 1918

Today's Carlisle Journal reported that the War Office had issued the latest dates on which parcels above the postal limits of weight should be dispatched to troops serving abroad (other than in France and Italy) in order to secure delivery for Christmas. India ...September 20th, Mesopotamia... October 1st, South and East Africa... October 10th, Salonika... November 1st, Egypt... November 1st, Malta... November 1st, Gibraltar ...November 1st, North Russia... October 12th.

11 September 1918

PRICE OF VEGETABLE MARROWS. The Food Controller has fixed the maximum price of vegetable marrows at 1d per lb. and the price must not exceed 7d for any one marrow.

12 September 1918

Mr and Mrs George Sampson, of the Temperance Hotel, Penzance, have suffered bereavement by the Galway Castle disaster. Their second son (Mr John Sampson) has been mining near Johannesburg many years.  His wife Carrie, aged 27, left Whitehaven, Cumberland, for passage in the Galway Castle to South Africa to join her husband. She had with her their only child  (Bertie) aged six years, and also an orphan nephew (Willie Host). After the torpedoing of the liner little Host was saved. A soldier put him on a raft. When picked up he was insensible. He recovered and a rescuing ship landed him in Plymouth. Of Mrs Bert Sampson and her boy no news has been received, and the family's lingering hope that some vessel may have taken them onto a foreign port is now dispelled by the lapse of time.  [Galway Castle torpedoed 12/09/1918]

13 September 1918

The first of several parties of American editors who are now visiting the country at the invitation of the Ministry of Information in order that they may see for themselves the extent of Britain's efforts in the fifth year of the war, arrive in Carlisle this afternoon and will stay the night at the County Hotel. The party includes the editors of some of the most important publications in the United States.

14 September 1918

Local football scores:
Whitehaven Ladies 1 Dick Kerr's Ladies 1
Dalton Casuals 1 Eskmeals Gunrange 0

15 September 1918

Notices have been posted inviting Barrow householders to fill up forms to regulate their coal supply. I hear, however, that the supply of forms has already been exhausted and thousands more will be needed. It seems only too probable there is going to be a serious shortage of coal this coming winter, and it behoves everyone to compromise as much as possible. The warning has not been taken seriously by many people. Possibly it is because we have been in so many tight corners before, out of which we have managed to scramble with surprisingly little material damage, and the public have come to believe our luck will hold out to the end. However the position is regarded as critical. The last heavy military draft on the miners was like the last straw upon the camel, and unless the total 'get' of coal can be greatly increased by bringing back the miners there may be many a cheerless frigate this winter which seems to have prematurely arrived. [This week's Barrow News].

16 September 1918

PHOTOS FOR THE BOYS ON THE FIGHTING FRONTS FOR XMAS. Special lines by A. Joslin, 43 Bank Street, Carlisle. Intending sitters will greatly oblige and facilitate the Execution of Orders in sitting as EARLY AS POSSIBLE. The newest lines at popular prices.

17 September 1918

The Bootle Rural Tribunal met at Millom today. Mr TB Lancaster, aged 34, Grade 2, Bridgestones, Drigg, farmer, assistant butcher was given six-months temporary exemption. This was on the following condition. The employer, who made the appeal on behalf of Lancaster, delivers meat in a wide radius round Drigg, but has not hitherto seen his way to include Ravenglass residents, these having to send into Drigg. The chairman of the Tribunal now promised to supply a room at Ravenglass as a meat depot, and the exemption of the man was granted subject to this being made use of on certain days in the week.

18 September 1918

A SIGN FROM HEAVEN. Farmers in the Lune Valley have found in their fields what some of them seriously regard as a sign from Heaven that victory will be ours before the corn ripens again. On many of the blades of oats is the outline of the letter B, caused by a slight but quite distinct depression in the surface of the leaf. On the wheat blades is a similarly  marked V. These are taken for 'British Victory'. The foundation for the belief that this will occur within the year is the fact that the same markings appeared in the year which saw the end of the South African War. One weakness of the cereal portent is that 'BV' would have served equally well for 'Boer Victory'.  Another is that the letters may be visible every year. It is not  easy to get sure replies to questions upon the point. The most definite answer was : 'Well, ah've sin 'em then,  an ah've sin 'em now, but ah've never  noticed 'em between.'

19 September 1918

OUR TOBACCO FUND (Under the aegis of the Newspaper Patriotic Tobacco Fund) The complete total of the fund up to Thursday evening, 19th September, is as follows: Tuesday evening £ 1,647 2s 5d Thursday evening £ 1,647 5s 11d Increase £ 0 3s 6d [Barrow News].

20 September 1918

At Burneside the first of a series of dances for the benefit of the Soldiers' and Sailors' War Comfort Fund, realised £ 1.00.

21 September 1918

WHITE FLOUR.  Sir - Much unnecessary suffering is being caused to the old people and invalids because war flour does not agree with them. There is quite sufficient pure flour to allow it to people over 75 years of age, also to those who can produce certificates from two fully qualified doctors that it is essential they should have it to prevent acute suffering. It is very unpleasant to realise that everything possible is not being done to mitigate the sufferings of the dying, or to save life. I do not wish to decry the merits of war flour; it is quite suitable for the great majority of people. I am, yours truly, George Dickinson, The Mount, Cark in Cartmel. [Letter in Barrow News].

22 September 1918

Mrs Thompson, of 27 Tangier Street, Whitehaven, the widow of Mr J Thompson, who was a member of the local council, has this week received a letter from her daughter, Nurse Isabella (Bella) Thompson, stating that she has been awarded the Mons Star for services in Antwerp. Sister Thompson, who is at present at the Pavilion Hospital, Brighton,  has been twice to Serbia and also to France. While serving with the Stobart field hospital, at Kragujevatz, Serbia, she had many exciting experiences. Once during an air raid by three aeroplanes the tents were scattered over with shrapnel. His Majesty King Peter of Serbia decorated Sister Thompson with the Cross of Charity for services rendered to the wounded and sick Serbian soldiers in 1914-15. She also received a gold medal and diploma in connection with Red Cross work. Nurse Thompson's three brothers, Sergeant Frank Thompson, and Privates Wallace and George Thompson, all of the Border Regiment, have all made the great sacrifice.

23 September 1918

Submarine HMS H31 launched at Barrow [Scrapped 1935].

24 September 1918

The travelling Kinema of the War Aims Committee is in Westmorland  this week giving interesting displays of the Allies' war efforts. The shows will be at Windermere tonight and at Kendal on Wednesday.

25 September 1918

Submarine HMS H27 launched at Barrow [Scrapped 1935].

26 September 1918

The hematite pig-iron trade continues exceedingly brisk, and supplies are not ample to supply all requirements. The question of production is still dominated by the labour factor. There are 31 furnaces in blast in North Lancashire and Cumberland, and arrangements are being made for re-starting a furnace in Askam. The bulk of the low-phosphorous is going to Midland and Scottish users, but ordinary sorts are consumed locally, and steel industry at Barrow and Workington being busy on war material, largely to the exclusion of other work.

27 September 1918

NUTSHELLS AND FRUITSTONES. To the editor of the Carlisle Journal. Referring to the appeal of the National Salvage Committee for nutshells and fruitstones which go to form the basis of a material which is invaluable in the construction of gas masks, will you allow this space to say that the Scouts of this Association will make periodical house to house collections throughout the City and the District. I appeal, therefore, to householders to save fruitstones and nutshells, and enable the boys to make the collection a substantial success. G F Saul. Hon Sec and District Commissioner, Carlisle and District Boys Scouts Association.

28 September 1918

The other day a little girl entered a shoemaker's shop in Rawlinson Street, Barrow, and asked for some half-inch rivets. The shoemaker told her he could not supply her as they were now rationed. Sometime later the girl returned with her mother's ration card.

29 September 1918

Shoe repairers of Barrow are now working under very heavy pressure. The ranks of the trade have been thinned out owing to the demands of the military, and those who remain to keep the inhabitants dry shod are finding great difficulty coping with work. To make matters work leather and grindery is scarce, and as mentioned above the repairers are only getting a proportion - about one-third, I understand - of the material hitherto supplied to them. It is not the easiest matter getting boots and shoes soled and heeled in these days even if you have to pay as much for the job as would at one time have purchased you a brand new pair. Sometimes it is a case of waiting several weeks before you may expect delivery. Prices to the trade have gone up tremendously and I am not accusing them of profiteering. Many shoe repairers are working hard, and for long hours, for a good deal less than the £ 5 minimum of which we hear so much now.

30 September 1918

Arrangements are being made for restarting a furnace at Askam Ironworks. It is always good news to hear of another furnace being put into operation for it all adds to the life and industry of the district and it is especially pleasing just now when the demand for iron is so insistent and so abnormally heavy in order that the allies may have sufficient munitions to blast the enemy out of their holes. The hematite pig iron trade in this district has been exceeding brisk for a long time past and is likely to remain so. The steelworks are also fully employed "delivering the goods". Not only will the iron and steel industries keep busy for the duration the post-war prospects are very rosy.

01 October 1918

A meeting of Brampton Town Council was held today. The council had before them a letter from the District Council stating that the Council were about to arrange for consideration of a scheme in regard to the housing of the working classes after the war, and asking the Parish Council to assist them by furnishing a report as to how many houses they think are requisite in the parish. Mr Spooner said there were a lot of dilapidated houses occupied at the present time which would not be tolerated in peace time. Additional houses were also wanted.

02 October 1918

Ulverston. This morning Mr William Hewitt, Steward of the Liberal Club, Ulverston, and Mrs Hewitt, received  a postcard dated June 10th, from their son Lance-Corporal Albert Hewitt, Lincolnshire Regiment, stating that he was a prisoner of war in Germany, but was unable furnish his address until he wrote again. Lance-Corporal Hewitt, who joined the King's Own in the early years of the war, and was afterwards transferred to the Lincolnshires, was previously reported missing on the 27th May, during the severe fighting in the Champagne region. This welcome news, after four months silence, has raised the hopes of the parents of other local lads reported missing.

03 October 1918

At Fleetwood, today, Messer's. Carr, White, and Co of Wigton, were summoned in 15 cases for selling jam at a price exceeding the maximum price. Mr Cottam, who prosecuted on behalf of the food control committee, said the proceedings were taken under the Jam Prices Order. Early in July Mr Richard Parkinson, grocer, of Fleetwood, sent the defendants a cheque for £ 100, and instructed them to send jam to that amount. The jam was received on September 12th and the following Monday Mr Parkinson agreed to retail it. On the following Monday Inspector Bailey was in the shop, and noticing the tins of jam he had a dozen weighed, and finding some short weight amongst them he decided to have the whole of the consignment weighed, with the result that there was found to be a net shortage of 66lb 11 oz. The case, Mr Cottam said, was a serious one. It was not a case of the little retailer with a turnover of £ 20 a week, but of a large firm of manufacturers. The defendants could not plead ignorance, because they were quite familiar with the orders. One of the causes of the recent strike was undoubtedly the high prices of food and profiteering, and he pressed the heaviest penalty, because the firm ought to show an example to other people. Mr Hetherington, on behalf of defendants pleaded guilty, and said his clients had done wrong unintentionally, having been the victims of circumstances over which they had no control. The shortage might have been due to the filling in, and again to defective tins. He could assure them on behalf of his clients that there would be no cause for complaint in the future. Defendants were fined £ 100 and costs, and ordered to pay the advocate's fee in each of the 15 cases £ 120 in all.

04 October 1918

From this week's Police Gazette: Deserted from HMS Conqueror on 14th September 1918, William Lowry, born Whitehaven, stoker 2nd class, five foot four inches, fresh complexion, brown hair, grey eyes [one of 631 deserters listed in this week's issue].

05 October 1918

A branch of the National War Munitions Volunteers has been formed in Barrow. It was suggested at the inaugural meeting that a blacklist of landladies be drawn up. Some of the members have been in about a dozen different diggings in as many months, which goes to show that either they are hard to please or that there is some room for improvement amongst certain landladies and the accommodation they have to provide. There are unquestionably profiteering landladies in Barrow as well as in other crowded areas, but it is also true that some lodgers or boarders are not of the most desirable type, so there may be faults on both sides [Barrow News].

06 October 1918

Private Walder, Australian Imperial Forces, died today in Newtown War Hospital, Carlisle. He was aged 18 years and 9 months and was suffering from rheumatic fever. His home was in Sydney NSW. He will be buried in Dalston Road Cemetery, Carlisle.

07 October 1918

The Daily Mirror today had a photograph of Corporal Simpson Wright of the Border Regiment being presented with the Military Medal with two bars, all won within twelve months, in the Market Hall, Penrith. The caption above the photo was TRIPLE MILITARY MEDAL HERO.

08 October 1918

Gunner Jack Rooke, Royal Garrison Artillery, has been wounded in the legs (not seriously) and has lost an eye. He is in hospital at Birmingham. Before joining the forces he was a clicker at Netherfield Works, and belonged to the Territorial Force. His home is at 158, Kirkland. His father, Mr. Richard Rooke, was in the volunteers for 35 years, gaining the long service medal.

09 October 1918

Well done Dalton! The efforts of a peace party to hold a public meeting at Dalton have been frustrated by the inability of the promoters to secure a hall. Miss Nora Hague, of London, speaker for the Women's Peace Crusade, hired the Drill Hall and billed the town for meeting tonight. At 7:30 about 40 people assembled, most discharged soldiers, but the hall was closed, and it was stated that no meeting would be held, as permission for the use of the hall had been refused.

10 October 1918

Writing in the "Thursby Parish Magazine" about the harvest festival on the 10th and 13th, the vicar says:
Our Thanksgiving services this year should form part of a great national outpouring of gratitude to God for his many mercies of preservation vouchsafed to us in the past twelve months. It is not Thanksgiving for the harvest only that we should lay before our God, but thanksgiving for the great mercies by which throughout this world wide war we have been spared and fed. None have such a sufficient supply of all that is necessary for our needs. Our enemies have tried to starve us out and by God's good grace have failed. Let us approach our God at Harvest Tide this year with very thankful hearts.

11 October 1918

Situations vacant. TWO PYRITES BURNER MEN for chemical works under Government control; long hours; light duties; liberal wages. Maxwell and Sons, Silloth.

12 October 1918

It was reported in today's Westmorland Gazette that the Rev. E O Read was killed in action in France on October 3rd, while helping the medical officer at an advanced aid post. A shell struck the dug-out direct, and both were killed instantaneously. He was attached to the Dorsets, and had been in France just over two months. He was married to Alice, Youngest daughter of Canon Reade, of Ings, on January 1st, 1918.

13 October 1918

Local Munitions Tribunal. At Longtown two sisters, A Smith and E Smith; both in lodgings in Barrock Street, Carlisle, were charged with absenting themselves from work on various dates in July, August and September without leave or unavoidable cause. Alice Smith stated that they were off work on August 6th and 7th but were granted leave by the chemist in charge. They also admitted being absent from the 20th to the 30th September but explained that their brother had come over from France and had arrived with their mother to spend a holiday in Carlisle. They sent word that they would not be at work. Mr Guthrie, representing Mr. Burnham, superintendent of the factory, read a letter from the girls, in which they admitted that they had stayed off without leave, but explained the circumstances. The sheriff said it must be evident to the accused, as intelligent girls, that if the workers in the factory stayed away and just sent word they were not coming, it would be very awkward indeed. He hoped that this conduct would not occur again. He dismissed them with an admonition.

14 October 1918

At the Cockermouth Police Court today, Robert Mullon, a discharged soldier, of Market Place, Cockermouth, was charged with unlawfully wearing certain army decorations at Cockermouth on 15th September. He was furthered charged with unlawfully and falsely representing himself as being entitled to wear such decorations. The defendant pleaded guilty. Superintendent Illingworth stated that defendant was seen in the streets of Cockermouth in civilian clothing wearing four gold wound stripes, and one red and three blue chevrons. He was stopped by Sergeant Wright and stated that he was in Egypt in 1914. Subsequently the sergeant called at his home, and defendant then produced papers showing that he was discharged from the army this year. Defendant said he was part of the Border Regiment in 1914 and that he had lost his papers and could not remember his regimental number. He also said that he was in the second remounts in 1915, but he had lost his papers from this regiment and could not remember his number. He said that in 1918 he was discharged from the Army Veterinary Corps, and produced his discharge papers from that regiment. As a matter of fact he was not in France in 1914, but he was there for about five months in 1915. So far as his discharge papers showed, he had never been wounded, nor had ever been in the firing line, most of the time having been spent in hospitals. He was entitled to wear two blue chevrons for the time he was in France. The Chairman said this was a very serious offence but they had taken a lenient view of it and defendant would be fined 40s in each case.

15 October 1918

Tonight a well-attended public meeting of the inhabitants of Brampton was held in St Martin's Hall to consider the resolution passed by the parish council on October 1st on the subject of forming a "Welcome Home" fund for soldiers and sailors on active service from Brampton Parish. The chairman said: "at the first glance some might suppose that this proposed welcome to soldiers refers to their coming home at the end of the war but this was not the object in view. Special welcome should be made for those returning home on leave, and some special recreation of those who have gained distinction by presenting them with some memento of the occasion. I feel sure that any special kindness we can show to our young men who have gone on service will appeal to everybody, for we all feel how deeply we are indebted to them, and we can never repay them for the sacrifices they have made, and for the splendid services they have rendered to their country in the great crisis through which we have passed. When the war is at an end it will be a considerable time before all our young men return as some are in distant parts but when they do come home it will be a happy event, clouded only by the sad thought that many unfortunately will never return, and our deepest sympathies will be with those who have suffered bereavement.

16 October 1918

From what I can gather, Barrow is not going to languish after the war because the demand for shells and other war-like exeterars [sic] will largely subside. The signing of peace will not abolish armaments. The League of Nations may act the part of policeman preserving peace and order, but even the P.C. carries his baton, and so Mr Douglas Vickers is convinced that the manufacture of armaments will continue to form an important branch of the company's operations. After hostilities are over and the boys come home full of honour and glory, firms such as Vickers will have to play a large part in the scheme of reconstruction, and in building up trade and industry. There is bound to be a largely-increased output in ships and railway material, and in this respect another of our large works will come into its own and enjoy probably an unprecedented spell of activity. Barrow has nothing to fear from the future [This week's Barrow News].

17 October 1918

Announcing the Opening of Dick's New Shop at 79, Scotch Street, Carlisle. Our new premises are now open and ladies and gentleman are invited to call at the earliest to inspect our stock and judge for themselves the exceptional qualities of our famous footwear. R & J Dick's boots and shoes combine elegance and lightness with exceptional strength and durability. For walking, and golfing, Dick's Box Calf Brogue shoes are unequalled.
Dickbalata Soles are ideal for munition workers, special constables, red cross and other war workers, being light and silent in tread, extremely durable and absolutely impervious to damp. One pair will outlast several pairs of ordinary soles.  [Advert in this week's Carlisle Journal].

18 October 1918

Kirkby Lonsdale. An exhibition of relics, trophies and souvenirs of the war, which was arranged by Miss Punchard, was held in the Institute, Keastwick, this week. The articles were sent through the influence of the Countess of Bective and Lady Henry Bentinck from the Imperial War Museum, London. They included shell baskets, granatenwerfer, rifles of German and Turkish make, machine guns, German armour, sword, bayonet, trench mortars, minnenwerfer, etc., as well as many trophies lent by Captain T. A. Punchard and members of the Border Regiment which were greatly admired. The proceedings were devoted to the fund to provide Christmas gifts to the members of Kirkby Lonsdale soldiers now serving abroad.

19 October 1918

Twenty wounded soldiers - all cot cases- arrived at Kendal in the early hours of this morning, and were removed to the V.A.D. under the usual medical supervision.  Private Jack Todd, late whipper-in to the Oxenholme Stag Hounds, has been admitted to hospital suffering from concussion and a fractured shoulder, occasioned by a fall from a Mexican horse in a training camp in Bristol. 

20 October 1918

A service was held in Burton in Lonsdale Church  this afternoon in memory of Pte John Harrison, Lancashire Fusiliers, and Pte Stephen Lawson, Royal Scots, both of whom have been killed in France. The church was well filled, and the service was taken by the vicar, the Rev R Stowell, who made touching reference to the two heroes, both old scholars of Thornton's Church. The former, aged only 18, was a bell ringer of the church. The local members of the VAD and special constables attended in a body. A collection for the local war memorial fund realised £ 2 17s 3d.

21 October 1918

Sir Albert Stanley, President of the Board of Trade, has sent a letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal Bourne, the Chief Rabbi, the Salvation Army and the heads of churches of all other denominations in England, Scotland and Wales, calling attention to the coal shortage and suggesting that church services should be held in daylight. It is suggested that a considerable saving might thus be effected in coal and lighting. The Dean of Carlisle pointed out that so far as the Cathedral was concerned there would be practically no saving by introducing an afternoon service in place of the evening service, as practically just as much light was required in the Cathedral in the afternoon as in the evening.

22 October 1918

Corporal (Lance-Serg) Edward Smith, Lancashire Fusiliers, one of the five recipients of the Victoria Cross gazetted today, is a Maryport youth, only 19 years of age. During his ten months' of service in France he had won promotion, and gained the DCM and the VC. Before the war he was a miner, working in the Oughterside Pit. His father fought in the Navy at the Dardanelles, and on his mother's side he comes of two generations of lifeboat men, his grandfather, John Benn, being succeeded by his uncle, Tom Benn, as coxswain of the Maryport lifeboat. He is one of the best swimmers in Maryport

23 October 1918

Memorial services for the late Rev. Theodore Bayley Hardy, V.C., D.S.O., M.C., King's chaplain, vicar of Hutton Roof and Lupton, Kirkby Lonsdale, who died in the Red Cross hospital Rouen, on Friday, were held  today at Hutton Roof and Lupton simultaneously. The former service was conducted by the Rev. F.W. Botterill, who has had charge of the parish since Mr. Hardy went to the front in August, 1916, and the latter service by the Rev. John Hodgkin, rector of Whittington. Crowded congregations representing people of all stations and creeds attended the services. The Rev. Canon Burton, vicar of Casterton, Rural Dean, and the Rev. Percival Brown, vicar of Kirkby Lonsdale, being from home, were unable to take part. At Hutton Roof the service opened with Chopin's Funeral March, played by the organist, Mr. W C Goodson, who at the close played the Dead March in Saul. The hymns were "Bless'd are the pure in heart" "Jesus Lives" and "Now the labourer's task is o'er". The 90th psalm was sung to Felton's setting, and the Rev. F. W. Botterill read the lesson, and afterwards gave an address. He narrated the circumstances of the vicar's death and the ministrations of his daughter, who happily not far away, was soon by her stricken father.

24 October 1918

The Emperor of Japan has conferred the Order of the Sacred Treasure on Major (Temporary Lieut-Colonel) E M Dunne, Reserve of Officers, formerly of the Border Regiment.

25 October 1918

Sapper Killed by Lion: Mrs Farrer, of South Terrace, Bowness on Windermere, has received official intimation that her youngest son, Sapper James Farrer, aged 20, was killed by a lion on the 7th inst. while working in East Africa with a wireless corps. He had been in East Africa about 14 months. He was the youngest of four brothers in the army and previously he learned electrical work at Windermere.

26 October 1918

FOUND IN THE SOLWAY. An inquest was held at Maryport today touching the death of an unknown man whose body was found floating in the Solway on the previous afternoon. Joseph Dixon, North Quay, was out fishing with John Denver and when about half a mile from the shore they noticed a body floating and took it into the boat. Sergeant Swatton said the body was in a decomposed state and the face being unrecognisable. On the left arm there was a 'W' and other marks tattooed. The man was dressed in ordinary clothes, not uniform, and he took him to be a seafaring man. He was a man between 55 and 60 years of age and 5ft 7 in or 5 ft 8in in height. No one was missing from Maryport. He had an Ingersoll watch, 16s 2d in money, and a tin tobacco box. The Coroner: Quite possibly a man who has been torpedoed? - Quite possibly.

27 October 1918

Wigton Urban, Wigton Rural, Holme Cultram Urban, and Aspatria Urban Military Tribunals will be amalgamated as from Martinmas Day, with Mr Crookes, Wigton, as clerk. Mr J. Story will represent Wigton Urban, and Messrs Wm Williamson, J Studholme, and Jon Strong representing Wigton rural. Aspatria will have one representative and Holme Cultram two. "With a view to economy" is given as the reason for this queer departure. Some of the tribunal members will be pleased to be rid of the thankless duties. 

28 October 1918

Coal is the key to victory. Smaller fires at home mean more rapid fire at the front. Notice from the Board of Trade in this week's Westmorland Gazette.

29 October 1918

Born this day Henry James Foch, son of Robert and Jennie King of 8 Esk Street, Longtown.

30 October 1918

THE KISSING BARRAGE. A Maryport infantryman, writing of the British entry into delivered towns says 'Before we could realise what had actually happened we were besieged on all sides and in the twinkling of an eye we were decorated practically from head to foot with small French flags and patriotic brooches. This was followed by an infinitely worse ordeal, as everyone wanted to kiss us, from grey-haired grannies to flaxen-haired toddlers. Somehow or other we struggled through and found our billets. Those we dreaded most were the souvenir hunters, those who came bringing scissors in search of buttons and numerals. In fact after the chaps had lost nearly all their tunic buttons they devotedly prayed these impulsive, excited people should not commence to collect trouser buttons'.

31 October 1918

THE TOBACCO FAMINE. The Penrith Urban Food Control Committee discussed the tobacco question. Mr W.Johnston said the marked shortage in the supply to Penrith was causing great dissatisfaction and discontent. People seemed to have the impression that the tobacconists had the stuff but would not sell it except to regular customers. This was not the case; supplies could hardly be obtained, and when the stuff did come in it was totally inadequate, and no more could be had for a month. If this had been a munitions area no doubt there would have been plenty. The present shortage pressed harshly on the poorer classes - Mr Fairer said it was principally twist and plug that was short - Mr Johnston said there was great shortage of cigarettes. - Mr Wainwright said some time ago he wrote to the Tobacco Control Board, who however did not hold out any hope the supply would be increased. The only way the supply would be increased would be to threaten a strike of farmers. They would do anything the farmers asked (Laughter).

01 November 1918

NEW MATRON AT FUSEHILL HOSPITAL. Sister Dalziel, daughter of Mr and Mrs Robert Dalziel, Bertram House, Milldamhead, Dumfries, has been appointed matron of Fusehill Military Hospital, Carlisle, in which there are 680 beds, and a staff of 80 nurses. Sister Dalziel received her early training at Kilmarnock, and afterwards joined the Queen's Nurses at Edinburgh. She was a sister at the hospital at Hull when the war broke out, and at once volunteered for service either at home or  abroad. Her services were accepted and for the first two years of the war she rendered splendid service in hospitals in Newcastle and Manchester. From Manchester she was sent as a sister to Salonica where she remained for eighteen months.


02 November 1918

A special meeting of Allonby Parish Council was held this week to consider the question of oil and coal supply. The Rev W Lindop presided. The Pool Board is at present rationing Allonby retailers in such a way that even without supplying any of the public buildings they could not give each household a pint of oil per week. This was felt to be utterly inadequate and it was decided to approach the various authorities, but before doing so to seek direct information from the Oil Company in case the position had been misunderstood.

03 November 1918

A Penrith farmer in Langwathby district, who employed a number of German prisoners from the camp there, showed the men the newspaper headlines, announcing the capitulation of Turkey. The prisoners, in a perfect frenzy, threw their caps in the air and shouted in guttural English 'Peace Christmas, home Easter; no more trenches'.

04 November 1918

Sergeant Albert Routledge, Patterdale, has been presented by the residents in the district with a luminous wristlet watch, on the occasion of his winning the Military Medal.

05 November 1918

Today's Daily Mirror November carried a photograph of the Maryport VC's homecoming. Sergeant Benn Smith, VC, DCM, of the Lancashire Regiment, was welcomed at Maryport when he arrived home on leave to be decorated by the King.

06 November 1918

THE WRONG WAY OF SPENDING LEAVE. David Potts, Margaret Street, was charged with assaulting Police-constable William H Davidson and Edward Cunningham, as well Potts was summoned for being drunk and disorderly in Botchergate, Carlisle. After separating the two men Police-constable Davidson went to Potts's house to ascertain his address, when he was struck in the eye and knocked to the floor. Mr GA Lightfoot said the defendant had been in France since July 1915. He had indulged in an unwise jollification whilst on leave, and remembered nothing of the affair. Each defendant was fined 18s 6d or 14 days for being drunk and disorderly, and Potts was fined 40s 6d for the assault.

07 November 1918

At a Whitehaven inquest the coroner said if he experienced any difficulty in obtaining a jury of men, he intended to adopt the experiment of asking the lady element to come and take part in the work.

08 November 1918

CHRISTMAS PARCELS FOR SOLDIERS. Keswick. A patriotic sale and fancy fair was held in the Pavilion at Keswick last week to raise funds for Christmas parcels.  Mr. Stuart, Chairman of the Urban District Council, said 600 men, boys and women, and girls had gone from the town to do war duty. Of the total 74 were in India, 19 in Mesopotamia, nine in Egypt, 25 in Salonica, 50 in Italy, 216 in France, 13 in the hands of the Germans, 182 in training, and 14 in East Africa. They had £ 225 in hand but more would be needed.

09 November 1918

OUR DAY FUND. To show his interest in the Red Cross PRESIDENT WILSON has sent to Carlisle a £ 1 NOTE signed by himself. The NOTE will be sold by PUBLIC AUCTION by Mr ROBERT DALTON, at the TOWN HALL SQUARE at 1:30pm on November 9th. SHORT ADDRESS will be given on the Work of the Red Cross and a large company is expected to support this historic event. The MAYOR will preside. FW CHANCE, Esq., and others will present. COME AND BID FOR THE NOTE.

10 November 1918

The newly-elected Mayor of Workington, Alderman Fred Hall, informed the Town Council on Saturday than in cash the town had lent the Government for war purposes £ 61,706. For war charities during the year they had raised £ 5,236. They were now turning their faces to the opening of a new municipal year, which was ushered in with the prospect of an early peace, and some of them were asking themselves - How should they as a nation celebrate the victory? If they had learnt their lesson in thankfulness to God, it would be in prayerful contemplation of their future action. Three reasons demanded this of them. First, the darkened homes; second the disabled men, third, the stern strife both for this nation and the individual which peace would usher in.

1915
January
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1915
February
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
1915
March
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1915
April
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1915
May
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1915
June
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1915
July
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1915
August
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1915
September
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1915
October
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1915
November
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1915
December
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1916
January
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1916
February
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
1916
March
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1916
April
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1916
May
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1916
June
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1916
July
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1916
August
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1916
September
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1916
October
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1916
November
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1916
December
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1917
January
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1917
February
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
1917
March
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1917
April
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1917
May
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1917
June
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1917
July
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1917
August
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1917
September
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1917
October
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1917
November
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1917
December
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1918
January
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1918
February
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
1918
March
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1918
April
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1918
May
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1918
June
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1918
July
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1918
August
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1918
September
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1918
October
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1918
November
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1918
December
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1919
January
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1919
February
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
1919
March
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1919
April
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30